社交网络时代的隐私悖论

#研究分享#【社交网络时代的隐私悖论】扎克伯格指出“隐私作为社会规范已成为过去”。年轻人真地不关注隐私了吗?牛津大学的研究指出,年龄和隐私关注呈负相关关系。事实上相较于年长者,年轻人更有可能采取措施保护隐私。社交网站已深度嵌入到人们的社会生活之中,人们不停地发布信息,尽管缺乏足够的隐私保护机制。


A New Privacy Paradox: Young people and privacy on social network sites

Grant Blank Oxford Internet Institute and Global Cyber Security Capacity Centre, University of Oxford,
grant.blank@oii.ox.ac.uk

Gillian Bolsover
Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, gillian.bolsover@oii.ox.ac.uk

Elizabeth Dubois
Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, elizabeth.dubois@oii.ox.ac.uk

Abstract: There is a widespread impression that younger people are less concerned with privacy
than older people. For example, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg justified changing default
privacy settings to allow everyone to see and search for names, gender, city and other
information by saying “Privacy is no longer a social norm”. We address this question and test it
using a representative sample from Britain based on the Oxford Internet Survey (OxIS). Contrary
to conventional wisdom, OxIS shows a negative relationship between age and privacy; young
people are actually more likely to have taken action to protect their privacy than older people.
Privacy online is a strong social norm. We develop a sociological theory that accounts for the fact
of youth concern. The new privacy paradox is that these sites have become so embedded in the
social lives of users that they must disclose information on them despite the fact that these sites
do not provide adequate privacy controls.

Prepared for the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, 16-19 August 2014,
San Francisco, California. We thank the Oxford Internet Institute and the Global Cyber Security
Capacity Centre at the University of Oxford for supporting this research. We thank William H.
Dutton for valuable comments on an earlier draft.

Standing on a stage in San Francisco in early 2010, Facebook founder Mark
Zuckerberg, responding in part to the site’s recent decision to change the privacy settings of its
350 million users, said that as Internet users had become more comfortable sharing more
information online with more people privacy was no longer a social norm (Johnson & Vegas,
2010). Because information about the users of social media was being sold by Facebook to
advertisers and other third parties for targeted advertisements at higher prices, Zuckerberg has a
commercial interest in relaxing norms surrounding online privacy, but his attitude has been
widely echoed in popular media.
The idea of a privacy paradox is commonly referenced in relation to SNSs; the idea that
young people are sharing their private lives online, providing huge amounts of data for
commercial and government entities, that older generations have fought and are fighting to
keep private, because they do not fully understand the public nature of the Internet and its
implications (Barnes, 2006). Some have gone so far as to assert that this practice may be the
biggest generational split since the early days of rock and roll (Nussbaum, 2007).
There has been relatively little systematic research into privacy attitudes or actions
among different age groups, or, for that matter, into most of the other major variables, such as
race and gender, that may relate to how people present their private lives in online settings.
Some evidence points to growing concern among Internet users about online privacy and
increased concern over the ability of users to manage their information privacy online, for
instance utilizing the privacy settings on popular SNSs (Marwick et al., 2010). A 2013 Pew study

found that 50 percent of Internet users were worried about the information available about
them online, compared to 30 percent in 2009 (Rainie, Kiesler, Kang, & Madden, 2013). Following
the revelations that the U.S. National Security Administration was collecting the telephone and
Internet metadata of its citizens, a Washington Post-ABC poll found that 40 percent of U.S.
respondents said that it was more important to protect citizens’ privacy even if it limited the
ability of the government to investigate terrorist threats (Cohen & Balz, 2013). So privacy
concerns may be increasing at the same time as conventional wisdom holds onto the view that
younger people are less likely to act to control the privacy of their personal information in the
online setting.
With these issues in mind this paper addresses the question: how does age relate to
online privacy and, in particular, do young people do less to protect their online privacy than
older Internet users? The next section lays out a sociological theory of privacy grounded in an
understanding of how people organize their social life. This is followed by a review of prior
research and a discussion of our methods. The paper then presents data on actions taken to
protect privacy and related variables. To conclude the paper discusses of these findings, their
limitations, and the implications for future research.

文章来源:Oxford Internet Institute

文章链接:http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/A%20New%20Privacy%20Paradox%20April%202014.pdf

 


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