声誉管理与新媒体

人们的形象建构在网上涉及到两个方面,一个是做,一个是看。做是自我身份的建构,看是对他们形象的理解。这就是涉及到当下最主流的两种新媒介形态:搜索引擎和社会化媒体。
从文中我们可以读到几点:
首先是年轻人在自我形象建构上的独特之处:1.他们更在意自己在网上发布了多少自己的隐私信息;2.他们更频繁的更换自己的隐私设置;3.他们倾向于删除自己不喜欢的评论;4.他们会张贴照片,但是不会在照片上标注“这是我”。总而言之,年轻人对网上隐私普遍更敏感,对网上信息也更缺乏信任。
其次是美国人现在越来越意识到网上形象的重要性,但是很难确切评估这种网上形象的影响力。
再次,年轻人在通过不同的设置来保护自己的隐私,但是这种设置的效果还是很难评估。
最后,形象的建构和声誉的管理是一个受多种因素影响的,而且很难受个体自身控制的东西。(网络有风险,发布需谨慎)

【文章摘要】How people monitor their identity and search for others online

Managing an online identity has become a multimedia affair. Not only can internet searchers type in queries about someone who has aroused their curiosity, they also can seek pictures, videos, and real-time status updates online. Location-based awareness in mobile devices adds another layer of information that can be searched. Avid users of mobile devices may voluntarily reveal their identity and location to certain websites, thereby allowing almost anyone to learn their whereabouts. Surveillance, even the
most benign kind, has moved out of the realm of private investigators and into the hands of the general public.
Much has changed since our 2007 Digital Footprints report. At the time, the idea of the then-new facial recognition technology being touted by photo search services like Polar Rose seemed radical. Today, facial recognition technology is standard in many new digital cameras, and applications like Polar Rose are soon going to be fused with the cameras and internet connections on users’ phones. Google Goggles, a service that lets you use pictures taken with your mobile device to search the Web, doesn’t offer facial recognition for now, but the underlying capability is there.1 As with any major technological advance, there are great potential benefits and risks associated with how these tools ultimately get used. See someone at a conference that you recognize but can’t remember his name? Aim your camera at him and instantly pull up the search results connected with his image online. Having a drink at a bar? Would you mind if another patron who took a liking to you could snap a picture and look you up? Planning on attending a political protest? Would you reconsider if you knew you could instantly be identified by the
counter-protesters?
Even those who choose to be relatively conservative with the information they share on the internet— favoring use rnames in lieu of real names when posting comments or creating an online profile—are becoming easier and easier to identify. According to one prominent study from the field of re-identification research, the vast majority of Americans (87%) can be identified with only three pieces of information: gender, zip code and date of birth.2 Given that this information is easily gleaned from many online
profiles created for popular sites like Facebook, users may be more exposed than they realize. Other new
studies have shown that seemingly anonymous profiles that express unique preferences—such as movie
lists on Netflix—can be used to identify users.
Recent changes in the default settings associated with Facebook and the launch of Google Buzz have prompted a heated public discussion about whether or not the public cares about “privacy” at all.3 But as prominent legal scholars and social media experts have repeatedly argued, a user’s sensitivity to specific privacy concerns is highly dependent on context and is often oversimplified.4 For instance, a user of a social networking site may not care if friends and family know that she is a fan of a certain politi-cal candidate on Facebook, but she may prefer not to broadcast those preferences to her employer or
neighbors.
One of the interesting tensions inherent in the realm of online reputation management is that users want to have a sense of control over their information, but they sometimes take the path of least resistance when making choices about how they manage their profiles and other content connected to their name online. Whether that means accepting the default privacy settings of an application or skipping over the fine print in a “terms of service” agreement, decisions about how one’s identity is communicated to the world can be made in haste and under the assumption that everyone experiences some level
of “privacy through obscurity.”
Popular media coverage of young adults and technology use has often suggested that younger generations have little regard for practicing discretion when sharing information online.5 However, the findings in this report suggest that, when compared with older users, young adults are more active online reputation managers in several dimensions. When compared with older users, they more often customize what they share and limit whom they share it with. Other recent research has also disputed the notion that young adults and even teenagers simply “don’t care” about privacy.6
Personal information has become a form of currency that is shared and exchanged in the social marketplace today. Yet, while the management of users’ online identities has arguably become more complex and multi-faceted over time, internet users have become less likely to worry about the amount of information available about them online.
【文章作者】Mary Madden, Senior Research Specialist
Aaron Smith, Research Specialist

【文章来源】
http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Reputation-Management.aspx
Pew Internet & American Life Project
An initiative of the Pew Research Center


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