【走在阳光下!这是距离太阳最近的图像】

【走在阳光下!这是距离太阳最近的图像】美国国家航空和宇宙航行局拍摄了史上最接近太阳的照片,试图了解我们这颗恒星的运行情况。拍摄这张照片时,帕克太阳探测器距离太阳表面约2710万公里。这使得探测器比地球离太阳表面近2.14亿公里。水星可以被看作是图像中心的一个明亮的斑点,日冕流光 可以看作是整个图像的闪烁条纹。与此同时,还可以观察日冕,从而解释长期困扰科学家的谜团,比如,太阳风如何以如此巨大的速度加速,以及太阳如何以一半的光速射出一些粒子。无人驾驶航天器正在进行前所未有的探索,它将直接穿过距离太阳表面仅380万英里的日冕或外太阳大气的边缘。

Walking on sunshine! Nasa has taken the closest image EVER of the sun with the Parker Solar Probe which is currently 133 MILLION miles closer to the star than we are

  • Parker Probe launched in August and is now started beaming images and data
  • It will study the atmosphere of the sun to learn more about the star's formation 
  • Image was taken from behind a heat shield and Mercury appears as a bright dot 
  • A 'coronal streamer' can be seen streaming across the image in a bright flash 

Nasa has taken the closest ever image of the sun in a bid to understand the workings of our star.

The Parker Solar Probe was about 16.9 million miles (27.1 million km) from the Sun's surface when the image was taken.

This makes the probe 133 million miles (214 million km) closer to the surface of the sun than Earth is - which orbits around 150 million miles (241 million km) away.

Mercury can be seen as a bright blob in the centre of the image and the black dots are said to have been caused by 'background adjustment' from the camera.

A coronal streamer - solar material near highly active regions of the sun - can be seen as a flashing streak across the image.

Astronomers are hoping the Parker mission can provide valuable data to help understand the mysterious processes of the sun.

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This image from Parker Solar Probe's WISPR (Wide-field Imager for Solar Probe) instrument shows a coronal streamer. Nasa said the Parker Solar Probe was about 16.9 million miles from the Sun's surface when this image was taken. Mercury can be seen in the centre of the image

This image from Parker Solar Probe's WISPR (Wide-field Imager for Solar Probe) instrument shows a coronal streamer. Nasa said the Parker Solar Probe was about 16.9 million miles from the Sun's surface when this image was taken. Mercury can be seen in the centre of the image

'Parker Solar Probe is going to a region we've never visited before,' said Terry Kucera, a solar physicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

'Meanwhile, from a distance, we can observe the Sun's corona, which is driving the complex environment around Parker Solar Probe.'

Nasa hopes its Parker Probe can explain three main mysteries that have long confounded scientists.

These include: Why the corona is heated to temperatures about 300 times higher than the surface below, how the solar wind accelerates at such vast speed and how does the sun eject some particles at half the speed of light.

Parker has only just started beaming data back to scientists back on Earth despite launching back in August.

Parker's WISPR instrument was pointed sideways from behind the dense heat shield of Parker when it captured the image.

'We don't know what to expect so close to the Sun until we get the data, and we'll probably see some new phenomena,' said Parker researcher Nour Raouafi.

'Parker is an exploration mission — the potential for new discoveries is huge.'

Measurements of the sun's atmosphere from a plethora of scientific measurements will give scientists new tools to discover how how the star operates.

HOW IS THE SOLAR WIND FORMED?

The sun and its atmosphere are made of plasma – a mix of positively and negatively charged particles which have separated at extremely high temperatures, that both carries and travels along magnetic field lines.

Material from the corona streams out into space, filling the solar system with the solar wind.

But scientists found that as the plasma travels further away from the sun, things change.

Views of the solar wind from NASA's STEREO spacecraft (left) and after computer processing (right). Scientists used an algorithm to dim the appearance of bright stars and dust in images of the faint solar wind

The sun begins to lose magnetic control, forming the boundary that defines the outer corona – the very edge of the sun.

The breakup of the rays is similar to the way water shoots out from a squirt gun.

First, the water is a smooth and unified stream, but it eventually breaks up into droplets, then smaller drops and eventually a fine, misty spray.

A recent Nasa study captured the plasma at the same stage where a stream of water gradually disintegrates into droplets.

If charged particles from solar winds hit Earth's magnectic field, this can cause problems for satellite and communication equipment.

The solar wind, the Sun's outflow of material, along with one-off eruptions of solar material called coronal mass ejections carry the Sun's magnetic field out through the heliosphere, producing space weather effects on Earth

This video clip shows actual data from another NASA spacecraft called Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A). It shows Parker Solar Probe flying through the sun's corona during its first pass in November

Parker Solar Probe will give scientists another new perspective on the Sun and is currently 133 million miles (214 million km) closer to the surface of the sun than planet Earth - which orbits around 150 million miles (241 million km) away

Parker Solar Probe will give scientists another new perspective on the Sun and is currently 133 million miles (214 million km) closer to the surface of the sun than planet Earth - which orbits around 150 million miles (241 million km) away

The spacecraft's ISʘIS suite will also help with understanding the energetic particle acceleration and the FIELDS instrument will detect electrical activity will understand the coronal heating.

Thermal properties of ions ejected from the sun will be studied by the Solar Probe Cup instrument and this, combined with FIELDS, will shed light on the behaviour of the solar wind.

Parker got within 15 million miles (25 million kilometers) of the sun's surface in November.

Twenty-four such orbits - dipping into the sun's upper atmosphere, or corona - are planned over the next seven years.

The gap will eventually shrink to 3.8 million miles (6 million kilometers).

The unmanned spacecraft is on an unprecedented quest that will take it straight through the edges of the corona, or outer solar atmosphere, just 3.8million miles from the sun's surface.

Previously, the closest an aircraft had come to the sun was 27million miles.

This mission will require 55 times more energy than would be needed to reach Mars, according to NASA.

Understanding the solar winds is a key goal of the Parker Solar Probe and this animation is from a model showing how the solar wind flows out from the Sun, with the perspective of Parker Solar Probe’s WISPR instrument overlaid

原文链接:https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-6495565/Nasa-taken-closest-image-sun.html


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