【失落的美国城市 】

【失落的美国城市】据英媒体报道,科学家们证明17世纪的西班牙征服者偶然发现了一个名叫Etzanoa的20,000名美国原住民城市。科学家声称,在西班牙征服者到来之前生活在非洲大陆的美洲原住民已经推进了“原始城市”。 堪萨斯州威奇托州立大学的考古学家唐纳德·布莱克斯利(Donald Blakeslee)说:“这个发现所代表的完全违背了历史书籍告诉我们的内容,这完全重写了历史书” 。

 

The lost city of America (near Arkansas City): Scientists PROVE that 17th century Spanish conquistadors stumbled across a city of 20,000 Native Americans called Etzanoa

  • Etzanoa is a pre-colonial society at the site of Arkansas City, Kansas
  • It is thought that the settlement was home to 20,000 Native Americans
  • Its existence has long been rumoured and proof has finally been found
  • A horseshoe nail and a pockmarked iron ball proved the Spanish were there
  • The findings show pre-colonial America was not all nomadic bison hunting tribes

Native Americans that lived on the continent before the arrival of Spanish conquistadors had advanced 'proto-cities', claim scientists.

Emerging research has found evidence of a mythical 20,000 strong civilisation called Etzanoa which sits in modern-day Arkansas City, Kansas.

A Spanish horseshoe nail and a pockmarked iron ball fired from a European gun provided evidence of a battle between the Spanish and a local population of Native Americans.

The city has long been described in folklore and further analysis of the site has revealed clusters of houses surrounded by gardens and farms.

This agrees with the eye-witness testimony from many historical records the discovery of Etzanoa challenges conventional thinking about what pre-colonial America looked like.

Etzanoa is described as having 2,000 beehive-shaped houses. The Spanish conquistador Juan de Oñate reported  each was large enough to house ten people, for an estimated population of 20,000. Shown is a traditional Wichita grass house in a file photo from 1927

Etzanoa is described as having 2,000 beehive-shaped houses. The Spanish conquistador Juan de Oñate reported each was large enough to house ten people, for an estimated population of 20,000. Shown is a traditional Wichita grass house in a file photo from 1927

Translations from a team of experts in 2013 shed light on the trip of Juan de Oñate, a Spanish conquistador who was also governor of New Mexico, in brilliant detail.

Donald Blakeslee, an archaeologist at Wichita State University in Kansas, has reanalysed these translations to gain a clearer view of the expedition.

'It's amending history,' said Dr Blakeslee.

'What this find represents is totally against what the history books told us.

'The Great Plains were originally thought to be sparsely populated, but this suggests that an intricate system of towns and cities dotted the regional map instead.'

Some artefacts found at the site contained rocks and minerals not found in the local area.

'It is my belief that indigenous groups from the Great Plains traded not only with other groups from the east and west coasts, but with civilisations belonging to Central and South America as well.'

'It totally rewrites the history books,' Dr Blakeslee said. 'It's a reminder that history is fluid; every answer we uncover just leads to more questions.'

The research began by narrowing down the potential sites of Etzanoa to two locations around Arkansas City in southern Kansas where pottery and arrowheads had been found for decades.

It remained uncleared, until now, if this was from the metropolis or left behind by wandering tribes over the centuries.

'If you go out there and spend time in the landscape, things fall into place,' says Dr Blakeslee, according to the New Scientist.

Further analysis involved the use of remote sensing to understand the terrain in greater detail by seeing what lies underneath the surface.

The study revealed the presence of human habitation with clusters of homes and some with gardens.

Some artefacts found at the site contained rocks and minerals not found in the local area. Research of Etzanoa to two locations around Arkansas City in southern Kansas where pottery and arrowheads had been found for decades (pictured)

Some artefacts found at the site contained rocks and minerals not found in the local area. Research of Etzanoa to two locations around Arkansas City in southern Kansas where pottery and arrowheads had been found for decades (pictured)

A man known only as Miguel has long provided the only known map of the lost city (pictured). He was captured by the Escanxaques tribe as a youngster before being taken prisoner by Oñate's men during the fight between the previously friendly Spaniards and the natives

A man known only as Miguel has long provided the only known map of the lost city (pictured). He was captured by the Escanxaques tribe as a youngster before being taken prisoner by Oñate's men during the fight between the previously friendly Spaniards and the natives

Translations from a team of experts in 2013 shed light on the trip of Oñate in never-before-seen detail 

Translations from a team of experts in 2013 shed light on the trip of Oñate in never-before-seen detail

The Spaniard reported the city had 2,000 large, beehive-shaped houses, each large enough to house ten people, for an estimated population of 20,000.

The cementing discovery which convinced the researchers the site was a permanent one came from a metal detector outing which revealed a Spanish horseshoe nail and a pockmarked iron ball fired from a European gun.

This, Dr Blakeslee says, is evidence of a battle between the Spaniards and the natives and proves it was waged at this specific site.

He also claims a deep rock-lined ravine in the terrain would have been the likely spot of the skirmish.

'I think it's obvious at this point [the site is Etzanoa],' he says.

Houses at the site are thought to have been made of poles stuck into the ground, covered with straw, and closed on top like tents. A deep rock-lined ravine in the area would have been the likely spot of a skirmish between Native Americans and Spanish soldiers 

Houses at the site are thought to have been made of poles stuck into the ground, covered with straw, and closed on top like tents. A deep rock-lined ravine in the area would have been the likely spot of a skirmish between Native Americans and Spanish soldiers

Emerging research has found evidence of a 20,000 strong civilisation called Etzanoa which sits in modern-day Arkansas City (pictured)

Emerging research has found evidence of a 20,000 strong civilisation called Etzanoa which sits in modern-day Arkansas City (pictured)

Scott Ortman, an anthropologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, agrees with his colleague.

He added:'Everything I've seen of the landscape and archaeology is consistent with Oñate's descriptions. I'm convinced.'

Juan de Oñate was a Spanish colonist and governor of New Mexico who led an expedition in June 1601 into the Great Plains in search of the fabled 'city of gold' Quiviria and stumbled across the Rayados people.

The expedition came across a war party of 300 to 400 natives, whom Oñate called 'Rayados', or striped ones, for their body paint and tattoos. They were almost certainly Wichitas.

The two groups found peace and the locals took the Spanish men to their metropolis, known as Etzanoa, which was described by the awe-struck Spaniards as being home to 20,000 people and requiring two days to walk across it.

Fields of corn, beets and squash surrounded the settlement, with large granaries to store the foodstuffs.

A Spanish horseshoe nail and a pockmarked iron ball fired (pictured) from a European gun provided evidence of a battle between the Spanish and a local population of Native Americans and was discovered by a high-school metal detectorist 

A Spanish horseshoe nail and a pockmarked iron ball fired (pictured) from a European gun provided evidence of a battle between the Spanish and a local population of Native Americans and was discovered by a high-school metal detectorist

After seeing the huge expanse of Native American civilisation many of the Spaniards turned around and fled back whence they came.

At this point, the group was ambushed by more than 1,000 natives from another tribe - the Escanxaques.

Centuries of analysis has tried to determine between fact and the liberal embellishment from the Spanish storytellers designed to impress their leaders.

A man known only as Miguel has long provided the only known map of the lost city.

He was captured by the Escanxaques tribe as a youngster before being taken prisoner by Oñate's men during the fight between the previously friendly Spaniards and the natives.

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-6441979/The-lost-city-America-Scientists-prove-20-000-Native-Americans-lived-place-called-Etzanoa.html


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