【硕士生成果】北京市居民手机报使用情况的定性考察

北京市居民手机报使用情况的定性考察:通过新媒体看“议题融合”理论之初探

陈红

内容摘要

手机报在中国正以燎原之势迅速扩散,面对超百的年增长率,移动运营、服务以及内容提供商们竞相进入,希望能迅速抢夺这一市场。与市场方面层出不穷的市场调研、市场报告相比,学界关于手机报的研究大多停留在几年前市场仍未萌发时的情况。笔者在全面回顾了国内外关于手机报的研究之后发现,所有研究都集中在了手机报的“服务”和“商品”属性上,对用户,也就是手机报读者的分析不仅少之又少,而且也只把他们当消费者,关注他们的月收入或是消费指数,完全忽略他们的社会属性。所以结合前期观察,本文引入了“议程融合”这一理论,该理论认为人们通过使用媒介获取群体议程,进而融入一定的群体。除了议题融合理论,本文还部分借用了知沟理论关于信息贫富的划分,将手机报与网络互动的情形两分。接着借理论框架,就以下三方面提出了研究问题:用户通过阅读手机报消化它内容后获得的议程,手机报帮助用户融入的群体,还有手机报和其他媒体的关系与互动。通过目标抽样方式,研究选取了19名调查对象,结合前期观察进行了半结构式的深度访谈,试图通过定性方式,结合“议题融合”理论来对北京市居民的手机报使用进行初步解释。最终,研究发现,手机报既为读者设定个人议程,也帮助人们摸索(test)及再造(reproduce)话题社区(topic community)的群体议程。不论是信息富有者(information rich),还是信息贫穷者(information poor)都通过它与话题社区进行着融合,不同的是,信息富有者以独特的“回归”形式返归群体,被动中依旧包含着积极的信息索取,而信息贫穷者则通过最低限度的信息输入与输出维持着群体交流。具体说来,手机报用户对手机报有着清晰的认知还有准确的媒体定位,觉得它“综合快捷,适合做信息提示或线索”。结合手机报阅读习惯中特有的“被动阅读”还有“延时阅读”,他们根据内容筛选机制,配合时间、设备还有群体这几要素,提取群体议程后参与到公共讨论中,继而成功地融入到话题社区当中。手机报与其他媒体最大的不同在于它便携、可移动,能帮助用户客服时空障碍,做到随时随地阅读新闻。跟传统报纸几乎形同水火的手机报却与网络展现了尤为显著的默契与互动。在借用了“知沟”理论中 “信息富有”和“信息贫穷”两个概念,分群体和个人两类情况对互动进行分析后发现:这一互动是对手机报内容的延伸与拓展,在它帮助个体融入话题社区的时候完成最大程度的升华,也就是说,手机报与网络互动帮助手机报实现了最重要的功能——让个人融入群体。宏观上,融入群体包括三个步骤:塑造形象,测试话题受欢迎测度,确认及再造群体议程。手机报和网络的微观互动是对个体融入群体宏观三步骤的圆满和助推。虽然帮助个体融入群体,间接实现社会化这样的社会性功能在其他媒体中也能找到,但在手机报上被发现还是首次。

关键词:手机报
议题融合
话题社区
社会互动

[An Qualitative Study on Mobile News Use by Beijing Residents]

[Abstract] Mobile news has been a market favor recently. Mobile Operators, Services Providers and Content Providers are all entering the market for easy share. In comparison with marketing enthusiasm, coolness of the academia is a little outdated. Market reports include nothing but customers’ income and CPI while papers are talking about complaints on tech-inadequacy made years ago. Mobile news catches their eyes only for it is commodity and service. This paper argues that this side of coin is overrated while the other under. Mobile news is more of a piece of text to be consumed meaningfully than a commodity for sale. To spotlight the whole research, this paper introduces “agenda-melding” theory, which derives from “agenda-setting” theory but inherits more sociological traditions. It believes that media use helps people meld their agendas with that of groups. Then it comes up with several research questions, that is, what people get out of reading mobile news, which group they meld with through mobile news reading and what separate mobile news from other contemporary media and if there is any interaction between them. After conducting in-depth interviews with a total number of 19, the result and analysis part starts with peoples’ perception of mobile news. People like its concise and precise text and get accustomed to a habit of passive and asynchronous reading. Moreover, they filter content, taking the initiative and researching on their interested topics via the Internet. This digging process involves a significant interaction between mobile news and the Internet. Later on, elements other than content filtering, that is, timing, accessible assets and organization affiliation are also brought in. Combination of the four elements would trigger the interaction between mobile news and the Internet, which leads to one’s final melding with topic community. In other words, people research on interested topic of mobile news and join public discussions so as to be part of topic community, which bring sense of togetherness. Media functions as skin, helping individuals to sense the environment and holding them from dilapidating. However, this is the very first time we find that on Mobile news.

Keywords: [Mobile News]、[agenda-melding]、[topic community]、[social interaction]


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