#科技头条#【英国央行行长:人工智能可能会夺走数百万人工作,导致社会结构变化】

#科技头条#【英国央行行长:人工智能可能会夺走数百万人工作,导致社会结构变化】《每日邮报》报道,英国央行行长马克·卡尼称,当今科学技术的巨大进步意味着机器人可能会导致数百万人的失业,而如果机械化的提升与工资的提升不匹配,那些受益于人工智能的人和失业的工人之间将会有巨大的不平等,马克思与恩格斯的理论可能会受到重视。马克·卡尼建议回溯到19世纪初工业革命时候的情况,生产力的提升也带来了不平等,马克思呼吁关注工业资本主义对工人的影响。而从近几年的金融危机以来,多年来工资的疲软意味着150年后可能同样的事情会重演。

Robots could cause millions of job losses and lead to the rise of COMMUNISM, warns Governor of the Bank of England

  • The Governor of the Bank of England said millions of jobs could be automated
  • Carney said workers should train for jobs that require emotional intelligence 
  • 'Marx and Engels may again become relevant' if pay is forced down, he added
  • Karl Marx and fellow German Friedrich Engels shared a concern over the impact of industrial capitalism 

The Governor of the Bank of England has warned that the rise of robots in the workplace could cause a revival in Communism and 19th-century wage stagnation.

Mark Carney, 53, said automation of millions of jobs would result in more support of Communist ideas within a generation.

'Marx and Engels may again become relevant' if mechanisation forces down pay and raises inequality, he warned.

To alleviate the damage, Carney suggested workers should train for jobs that require higher emotional intelligence, for example in care and leisure.

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The Governor of the Bank of England Mark Carney (file photo) has warned the rise of robots in the workplace could cause a revival in Communism and 19th-century wage stagnation

The Governor of the Bank of England Mark Carney (file photo) has warned the rise of robots in the workplace could cause a revival in Communism and 19th-century wage stagnation

Speaking at the Canada Growth Summit in Toronto, Carney said there will be vast inequalities between workers who benefit from AI and those who have their job wiped out by it.

He suggested we might return to a situation similar to the industrial revolution during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, where there was huge growth in production.

Wages did not increase until decades later, which resulted in inequalities that may have fuelled left and right extremism in Europe.

'The benefits, from a worker's perspective, from the first industrial revolution, which began in the latter half of the 18th century, were not felt fully in productivity and wages until the latter half of the 19th century', he said.

In 1848 they published their best-known work, The Communist Manifesto, at a time when continental Europe was ablaze with revolution and political instability.

'If you substitute platforms for textile mills, machine learning for steam engines, Twitter for the telegraph, you have exactly the same dynamics as existed 150 years ago when Karl Marx was scribbling The Communist Manifesto', Carney said.

Years of weak growth in salaries since the latest financial crisis means that the same thing could be repeated 150 years later.

Carney, who is set to leave the post next year, said that all careers would be affected, writes the Independent.

Karl Marx (pictured) and fellow German Friedrich Engels shared a concern over the impact of industrial capitalism on workers, including the alarmingly high rates of disease, malnutrition and injury in English factories

Karl Marx (pictured) and fellow German Friedrich Engels shared a concern over the impact of industrial capitalism on workers, including the alarmingly high rates of disease, malnutrition and injury in English factories

WHICH COUNTRIES ARE MOST AT RISK FROM AUTOMATION?

A previous report suggests that workers in China are likely to be most affected by the switch to automation.

It said: 'In absolute terms, China faces the largest number of workers needing to switch occupations—up to 100 million if automation is adopted rapidly, or 12 percent of the 2030 workforce.

'While that may seem like a large number, it is relatively small compared with the tens of millions of Chinese who have moved out of agriculture in the past 25 years.'

But the countries facing the biggest change are the US, Germany and Japan, according to the report.

It added: 'For advanced economies, the share of the workforce that may need to learn new skills and find work in new occupations is much higher: up to one-third of the 2030 workforce in the United States and Germany, and nearly half in Japan.'

'Hollowing out' was already being seen in the job market, he warned, with computers able to complete both unskilled - and skilled - work.

Robots can already do things such as comb through legal documents - something previously done by junior lawyers, Carney said.

'In surveys, over 90 per cent of citizens don't think their jobs will be affected by automation, but a similar percentage of CEOs think the opposite, in the number of jobs which will be materially affected', he said.

Earlier this year a scientist warned humanity is heading for a 'hellish dystopia' as robots take over billions of jobs.

Dr Subhash Kak, a computing expert at Oklahoma University warned that self-worth will be lost as robots take control and lead humans into a life of 'meaningless' misery.

He claimed the US opioid addiction and the rise of extremist groups are an early omen of a dystopian future.

A report last year claimed that 800 million workers could be replaced by machines by 2030 (stock image)

Dr Kak, a professor of electrical and computer engineering told the Daily Star Online: 'The beginnings of the dystopia are already there.

'There will be massive unemployment. People want to be useful and work provides meaning, and so the world will sink into despair.'

This is already happening, he said.

A report last year claimed that 800 million workers could be replaced by machines by 2030.

Dr Kak said: 'Policy makers have begun to speak of a minimum guaranteed income with everyone provided food, shelter, and a smart phone, and that will not address the heart of the problem.

'In my view, the current opioid and drug epidemic in the US is a manifestation of this despair.

'Likewise, phenomena such as ISIS are a response to the meaninglessness that people find in a world devoted only to the cult of the body,' said Dr Kak.

In November, management consultancy firm, McKinsey, published a report called 'Jobs lost, jobs gained: Workforce transitions in a time of automation'.

The report focused on the amount of jobs that would be lost to automation, and what professions were most at risk.

The report claimed that there will be enough work to maintain full employment until 2030, but there will be challenging transitions ahead and that in about 60 per cent of jobs, at least one third of activities could be automated.

Elon Musk has previously warned about automation becoming the norm.

‘There is a pretty good chance we end up with a universal basic income, or something like that, due to automation,’ Musk told CNBC back in 2016.

‘I’m not sure what else one would do with this.

'I think that's what would happen.’

WHAT IS COMMUNISM AND HOW DID IT SPREAD?

The system of thought called communism is an ideology summarised in the maxim 'From each according to his ability, to each according to his need.'

It is a slogan popularised by Karl Marx in his 1875 work Critique of the Gotha Program.

The history of political philosophy is littered with similar ideas, but communism as a distinct ideological system was developed in the mid-1800s by Marx.

In the 1840s, the German philosopher of Jewish origins, met fellow German Friedrich Engels.

Both men shared a concern over the impact of industrial capitalism on workers, including the alarmingly high rates of disease, malnutrition and injury in English factories.

In 1848 they published their best-known work, The Communist Manifesto, at a time when continental Europe was ablaze with revolution and political instability.

It was in this text that Marx outlined his radical views on history, economics and the future of mankind.

Marx argued that individuals and elites who possess wealth and the means of industrial production also possess considerable power, which they to control other aspects of society.

Marx argued that most historical change is caused or driven by friction between the classes.

As well as providing a critical analysis of capitalism, Marxism also became a revolutionary ideology.

Many radicals, who had long railed against the excesses of 19th century capitalism, found the writings of Marx and Engels to be a comprehensive account of what was wrong with the socio-economic system.

Marxist political groups emerged across Europe, from Britain to the states of eastern Europe.

A number of experiments in Marxism saw mini-revolutions attempted and communes established, largely unsuccessfully, across the continent toward the end of the 19th Century.

At the turn of the 20th Century, the first national revolution founded on Marxist principles took place in Russia, leading to the spread of communism as a world force.

It also began a period when Marx's ideas were used to justify increasingly authoritarian regimes, including Stalinism in Russia and Maoism in China.

As the Second War Came to an end, divisions between the communist states and western democracies became more entrenched, leading to the Cold War.

The fall of the Berlin Wall at the end of 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 marked a definitive end to the conflict, although relations still remain frosty between some nations to this day.


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