【最新证据显示:南极臭氧层空洞正在变小】

【最新证据显示:南极臭氧层空洞正在变小】美国国家航空研究发现,大气中臭氧破坏氯的水平正在迅速下降,这是地球保护层正在好转的直接指标。去年,卫星图像似乎显示臭氧空洞已经开始变小,一些科学家认为臭氧层可能在2060之前完全恢复。 不过直到现在专家们还不清楚这是否是蒙特利尔协议的结果,该协议主张于1989年开始主动淘汰含消耗臭氧层的氯的产品。

The ozone layer is HEALING: Hole over Antarctica is closing thanks to a worldwide ban on the damaging chemicals, NASA confirms

  • Ozone layer over the Antarctic is starting to recover from chemical damage
  • Recovery is due to a decrease in the amount of chlorine in the atmosphere
  • A 1989 global initiative to ban chemicals called CFCs is helping to heal the layer 

A hole in the ozone layer that appeared above Antarctica in the 1980s has shrunk thanks to a worldwide ban on damaging chemicals, Nasa has confirmed.

Research found that levels of ozone-damaging chlorine are rapidly declining in the planet's atmosphere, a direct indicator that Earth's protective layer is on the mend.

Last year, satellite images seemed to show that the ozone hole had begun to close up, with some scientists suggesting it could fully recover by 2060.

Until now it was not clear if this was the result of the Montreal protocol, a 1989 initiative to phase out ozone-depleting chemicals called chloro-flurocarbons (CFCs).

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A hole in the ozone layer that appeared above Antarctica in the 1980s has shrunk thanks to a worldwide ban on chemicals, Nasa has confirmed. Ozone depletion varies with the weather making changes over time difficult to study. Purple and blue shows areas with the least ozone

CHLORO-FLUROCARBONS

During the 1980s researchers spotted a hole forming in the protective layer, which many blamed on global usage of chemicals called chloro-flurocarbons (CFCs).

CFC's were widely used in aerosols, fridges, air conditioning and packing materials until they were phased out as part of the Montreal protocol in 1989.

They are broken down by the Sun's ultraviolet radiation when they rise into the stratosphere, releasing chlorine atoms that destroy ozone molecules.

The new study satellite readings of the chemical composition of atmosphere to find that the hole in the ozone layer is decreasing in size thanks to a drop in CFC levels.

'All of this is evidence that the Montreal Protocol is working - the chlorine is decreasing in the Antarctic stratosphere, and the ozone destruction is decreasing along with it,' the researchers, led by Dr Susan Strahan of Nasa's Goddard Space Flight Centre in Greenbelt, Maryland, wrote.

Earth's ozone layer acts like a sunscreen, shielding the planet from potentially harmful UV radiation that can cause skin cancer, cataracts, and damage wildlife.

During the 1980s researchers spotted a hole forming in the protective layer, which many blamed on global usage of chloro-flurocarbons (CFCs).

CFC's were widely used in aerosols, fridges, air conditioning and packing materials until the Montreal protocol.

They are broken down by the sun's ultraviolet radiation when they rise into the stratosphere, releasing chlorine atoms that destroy ozone molecules.

Research found that levels of ozone-damaging chlorine (blue line) are rapidly declining in the planet's atmosphere, a direct indicator that Earth's protective layer is on the mend. The black line shows the ozone change since 2005

Research found that levels of ozone-damaging chlorine (blue line) are rapidly declining in the planet's atmosphere, a direct indicator that Earth's protective layer is on the mend. The black line shows the ozone change since 2005

Since 2005, Nasa has permanently monitored the hole in the ozone layer with its Aura satellite.

Ozone depletion occurs in cold temperatures, meaning it varies with the weather year-on-year, making changes over time difficult to study.

Previous research has used statistical analyses of changes in the ozone hole's size to argue that ozone depletion is decreasing.

But the new study used Aura readings of the chemical composition of the hole, finding that the hole is decreasing in size thanks to a drop in atmospheric CFC levels.

Last year, satellite images (pictured) seemed to show that the ozone hole had begun to close up, with some scientists suggesting it could fully recover by 2060. The purple and blue colors are areas with the least ozone

Last year, satellite images (pictured) seemed to show that the ozone hole had begun to close up, with some scientists suggesting it could fully recover by 2060. The purple and blue colors are areas with the least ozone

Ozone-damaging chlorine concentrations over the Antarctic are declining at a rate of 25 parts-per-trillion each year, equivalent to 0.8 per cent, the study found.

This resulted in a 20 per cent drop in ozone destruction since the Montreal protocol came into effect.

'CFCs have lifetimes from 50 to 100 years, so they linger in the atmosphere for a very long time,' said study coauthor Dr Anne Douglass.

'As far as the ozone hole being gone, we're looking at 2060 or 2080. And even then there might still be a small hole.'

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5239139/Nasa-finds-direct-proof-ozone-recovery.html#ixzz53Yc7RLOp


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