【研究表明,密集恐惧症可能与原始人类演化有关】

【研究表明,密集恐惧症可能与原始人类演化有关】一项研究表明,对蜂窝状孔洞的“密集恐惧症”可能与原始人类的演过过程有关。研究人员发现,密集恐惧症可能是人类演化的过程中积累的对传染病和寄生虫的焦虑。这是由于原始人类缺乏抵抗疾病的能力,演化过程中培养了对蜱和皮疹一类疾病的恐惧本能。类似的情况还有人对蛇皮花纹和蜘蛛腿的恐惧。

 

Do YOU hate honeycombs and seed pods? Scientists find 'fear of holes' condition trypophobia is linked to disgust and NOT fear

  • Trypophobia is condition where clusters of holes or round shapes cause disgust
  • A study suggests it may be linked to an anxiety of infectious disease or parasites
  • Researchers found sufferers felt same aversion as they would from ticks or rash

Trypophobia, commonly known as 'fear of holes,' is linked to disgust and not fear, researchers have found.

Many people report feeling an aversion to clusters of holes - such as those of a honeycomb, a lotus seed pod or even aerated chocolate.

Now, researchers have worked out why,.

Whether you¿re set off by a lotus seed pod (pictured) or something as common as the bubbles in a cup of coffee, one thing¿s for sure ¿ for people with trypophobia, the mere sight of a cluster of holes can be enough to push you over the edge

'Some people are so intensely bothered by the sight of these objects that they can't stand to be around them,' says Stella Lourenco, a psychologist at Emory University whose lab conducted the study, published in PeerJ.

'The phenomenon, which likely has an evolutionary basis, may be more common than we realize.'

Previous research linked trypophobic reactions to some of the same visual spectral properties shared by images of evolutionarily threatening animals, such as snakes and spiders.

The repeating pattern of high contrast seen in clusters of holes, for example, is similar to the pattern on the skin of many snakes and the pattern made by a spider's dark legs against a lighter background.

'We're an incredibly visual species,' says Vladislav Ayzenberg, a graduate student in the Lourenco lab and lead author of the PeerJ study.

'Low-level visual properties can convey a lot of meaningful information.

'These visual cues allow us to make immediate inferences - whether we see part of a snake in the grass or a whole snake - and react quickly to potential danger.'

It is well-established that viewing images of threatening animals generally elicits a fear reaction in viewers, associated with the sympathetic nervous system.

The heart and breathing rate goes up and the pupils dilate. This hyperarousal to potential danger is known as the fight-or-flight response.

The researchers wanted to test whether this same physiological response was associated with seemingly innocuous images of holes.

They used eye-tracking technology that measured changes in pupil size to differentiate the responses of study subjects to images of clusters of holes, images of threatening animals and neutral images.

Unlike images of snakes and spiders, images of holes elicited greater constriction of the pupils -- a response associated with the parasympathetic nervous system and feelings of disgust.

'On the surface, images of threatening animals and clusters of holes both elicit an aversive reaction,' Ayzenberg says.

'Our findings, however, suggest that the physiological underpinnings for these reactions are different, even though the general aversion may be rooted in shared visual-spectral properties.'

 Unlike most other phobias, which bring on intense feelings of fear, trypophobia incites extreme repulsion and sometimes even the urge to vomit. Clusters of round shapes, such as the bubbles in a cup of coffee, can be a trigger 

In contrast to a fight-or-flight response, gearing the body up for action, a parasympathetic response slows heart rate and breathing and constricts the pupils.

'These visual cues signal the body to be cautious, while also closing off the body, as if to limit its exposure to something that could be harmful,' Ayzenberg says.

The authors theorize that clusters of holes may be evolutionarily indicative of contamination and disease - visual cues for rotten or moldy food or skin marred by an infection.

The subjects involved in the experiments were college students who did not report having trypophobia.

'The fact that we found effects in this population suggests a quite primitive and pervasive visual mechanism underlying an aversion to holes,' Lourenco says.

People with trypophobia are known to feel distressed after seeing all sorts of hole-filled objects, such as a beehive or even a sponge.

And, in recent years, more extreme examples of these triggers have become common, including images edited to show human body parts filled with lotus-like holes, or similar impressions created using special effects makeup, as demonstrated in a tutorial shared on YouTube.

In another recent study, psychologists at the University of Kent recruited more than 300 people from trypophobia support groups to find out more about the condition.

They also included a comparison group of over 300 university students who do not suffer from trypophobia.

The participants were shown sixteen images of real objects that exhibit clusters of roughly circular shapes – eight of which showed clusters relating to various diseases, including rash marks, smallpox scars, or ticks.

In recent years, more extreme examples of these triggers have become common, including images edited to show human body parts filled with lotus-like holes, or similar impressions created using special effects makeup, as demonstrated in a tutorial shared on YouTube

The remaining eight photos were not disease related, instead including examples such as a lotus flower seed pod, or a brick wall with holes drilled into it.

While both groups indicated that they'd found the disease-related images unpleasant, only the trypophobic group reported that the disease-irrelevant images were extremely unpleasant.

Previous research has suggested that the condition may be linked to an evolutionary predisposition toward round shapes that may be found on poisonous animals, such as the blue-ringed octopus.

But, the new study instead suggests it may be an evolutionary response to infectious diseases.

It's thought that the feeling of disgust plays a role in helping people avoid potentially infectious sources – and, this is the main sensation involved in trypophobia.

Many infectious diseases are known to cause clusters on the skin, including smallpox, measles, rubella, typhus, and scarlet fever, the researchers note.

And, ectoparasites such as scabies, ticks, and botflies can have similar effects.

The vast majority of the trypophobia participants reported disgust or disgust-related feelings, including nausea and the urge to vomit, after viewing the images, according to the researchers.

While just a small number of these individuals described feelings relating to fear, many also reported that they'd experienced the sensation of itchy or 'crawling' skin, or the feeling of 'bugs infesting the skin.'

The findings suggest the 'overgeneralized response' seen in people with trypophobia leads them to experience the same type of aversion when viewing a lotus pod, for example, as they would when shown a cluster of ticks or lesions.

原文链接:http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5236295/Fear-holes-trypophobia-linked-disgust-NOT-fear.html

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