【我们已近领先于自己,但“世界第一次头部移植”并不成功】

【我们已近领先于自己,但“世界第一次头部移植”并不成功】据外媒报道,执行世界首例头部移植实验的外科医生任晓平教授否认了研究成功,认为他和他的团队只完成了头移植外科模型,并没有完成人类活体手术。而意大利教授Sergio Canavero在新闻发布会宣布这是世界第一例人类头部移植手术在一具遗体上“成功实施”。目前在对小白鼠和狗的头部移植实验中,其研究小组使用一种名为聚乙二醇的化合物将脊柱、神经、血管和头颅接合。但是目前“换头术”在技术和伦理道德上仍然面临困难,人们非常恐惧“科学怪人”的降生。

In May, scientists carried out a head transplant on a rat in a practise run for controversial human experiment. In the disturbing experiment, researchers in China affixed the heads of smaller, 'donor' rats onto the backs of larger rats, that lived an average of just 36 hours

A surgeon who is behind the world's first head transplant experiment today denied the success of the first operation on a corpse.

Professor Ren Xiaoping, 56, claimed what he and his team had completed was the 'first surgical model' for a human head transplant - not an operation.

The news came just days after Italian professor Sergio Canavero claimed that Professor Ren and his team had successfully carried out the world's first human head transplant on a corpse during a 18-hour operation.

Professor Canavero also claimed during a press conference in Vienna that a similar operation on a live human would take place 'imminently'.

However, Professor Ren said that he doesn't know when the procedure would happen, stressing that 'there is a long way to go'.

Professor Ren added that his team had successfully conducted a head transplant experiment on a dog, in which they resolved the issue of the re-growth of spine. Professor Ren and his team have carried out similar procedure on a mouse.

Professor Ren is a PhD supervisor and U.S.-educated surgeon from The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University in north-west China's Heilongjiang Province.

During today's press conference at Harbin Medical University, he announced: 'Our team recently had a significant scientific breakthrough: to complete the first surgical model for head transplant.'

He explained that they designed the 'pre-clinical operational method' on a recently deceased corpse, according to The Paper.

Apparently, Professor Ren's team have found a solution to help with the re-growth of the spine - a difficult issue to the medical world.

Professor Ren then played a video to the journalists which showed his team carrying out a head transplant experiment on a dog.

The surgeon claimed that the dog's spine was completed cut during the experiment, and his team successfully re-connected it with the spine in the new head using a chemical compound, called polyethylene glycol.

He claimed that the dog could start to walk two weeks after the operation and run two months after the operation. One year later, the result of the experiment appeared 'very good'.

Professor Ren also admitted that the lab dog could not act like a completely normal dog.

While being asked by a journalist to explain the details of the re-connection, professor Ren claimed the question was 'too professional'.

He said: 'I'm not a chemist or pharmacist, I'm a surgeon.'

To conclude, professor Ren pointed out that his team had brought a 'significant', 'landmark' and 'great' contribution to the medical world.

He then urged all journalists to read his report on Surgical Neurology International, claiming that was a benchmark of a successful experiment.

On November 17, Professor Canavero, director of the Turin Advanced Neuromodulation Group, announced at a press conference that the world's first human head transplant had been carried out on a corpse by professor Ren in China.

The controversial professor claimed that during an 18-hour procedure, experts demonstrated that it is possible to successfully reconnect the spine, nerves and blood vessels of a severed head.

A similar operation on a live human will take place 'imminently', said professor Canavero. 

Speaking at the press conference, Professor Canavero said: 'For too long nature has dictated her rules to us.

'We're born, we grow, we age and we die. For millions of years humans has evolved and 110 billion humans have died in the process.

'That's genocide on a mass scale.

'We have entered an age where we will take our destiny back in our hands.

'It will change everything. It will change you at every level.

'The first human head transplant, in the human mode, has been realised.

'The surgery lasted 18 hours. The paper will be released in a few days.'

'Everyone said it was impossible, but the surgery was successful.'

Professor Canavero added that the team's next step is to perform a full head swap between brain dead organ donors.

'And that is the final step for the formal head transplant for a medical condition which is imminent,' he said

'It will be for a medical, neurological condition, not for life-extension.'

Asked whether the eventual plans for live procedures would go worldwide after initial tests in China, Professor Canavero said: 'Given the amount of mean criticism we recieved I don't think we should go international.

'For instance, if you still stick to the Frankenstein schtick, which doesn't make sense, then no.

'This is a medical condition for people who are suffering awfully so it isn't a joke.'

Response from the medical community to news of the procedure has been wholly critical.

Many professionals have branded the experiment as having negligible scientific or medical and have questioned Professor Canavero's ethics.

Dr James Fildes, NHS principal research scientist at the University Hospital of South Manchester's Transplant Centre, said: 'Unless Canavero or Ren provide real evidence that they can perform a head, or more appropriately, a whole body transplant on a large animal that recovers sufficient function to improve quality of life, this entire project is morally wrong.

'Perhaps far more worryingly, this endeavour appears to revolve around immortality, but in each case a body is needed for the transplant, and therefore a human needs to die as part of the process.

'Where does Canavero propose to get the donor body from if the goal is to tackle the laws of nature?

'Has Canavero considered how he will tackle acute rejection of the constituent parts of the head?

'What will rejection of the skin, muscles, eyes, and brain manifest as? I hope this is not just egotistical pseudoscience.'

Dr Jan Schnupp, professor of neuroscience at the University of Oxford, added: 'I find it inconceivable that ethics committees in any reputable research or clinical institutions would give a green light to living human head transplants in the foreseeable future.

'Indeed, attempting such a thing given the current state of the art would be nothing short of criminal.

'As a neuroscientist, I would really quite like the general public to be reassured that neither I nor any of my colleagues think that beheading people for extremely long shot experiments is acceptable. It is not.'

Professor Canavero first made his shocking plans public in 2015.

Severely handicapped Russian computer scientist Valery Spiridonov initially volunteered to be a human guinea pig, by undertaking the world's first live head transplant.

Mr Spiridonov, 31, now accepts his hopes of his head being grafted onto a new healthy body are over.

It is likely the first transplant will be carried out on someone from China, and a large number of volunteers are already claimed to have come forward.

In preparation, scientists attached the head of a rat onto the body of another in May.

In the disturbing experiment, researchers in China affixed the heads of smaller, 'donor' rats onto the backs of larger recipients, creating two-headed animals that lived an average of just 36 hours.

The team, which involved Professor Canavero, managed to complete the transplant without causing blood loss-related brain damage to the donor.

In the study, researchers from Harbin Medical University in China and Professor Canavero built upon earlier head-grafting experiments to figure out how to avoid damage to the brain tissue during the operation, as well as long-term immune rejection.

Previously, scientists have attempted the procedure on dogs and monkeys, which helped to test neural preservation when blood flood to the brain had been cut off, they explain in the paper published to CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics.

But, long-term survival of the specimens was not a priority.

The researchers used three rats for each operation: a smaller rat, to be the donor, and two larger rats, acting as the recipient and the blood supply.

To maintain blood flow to the donor brain, they connected the blood vessels from that rat to veins of the third rat using a silicon tube, which was then passed through a peristaltic pump.

Then, once the head had been transplanted onto the second rat's body, the researchers used vascular grafts to connect the donor's thoracic aorta and superior vena cava to the carotid artery and extracorporeal veins of the recipient.

According to the team, there was no injury to the donor brain tissue as a result of blood loss in the experiment.

And, after the surgery, the donor head was still able to blink and feel pain.

The two-headed creatures lived 36 hours on average following the procedure, Business Insider reported.

Still, with the addition of the peristaltic pump and vascular grafting to the technique, the researchers say long-term survival could be a possibility.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5103213/World-s-head-transplant-corpse-not-completed.html


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