中国计划捕集数百万吨二氧化碳 可用于提取石油

中国计划捕集国内能源和钢铁企业排放的数百万吨二氧化碳,用于从国内日益贫瘠的油田中提取原油以及制作碳酸饮料等。延长碳捕集封存一体化项目(Yanchang Integrated Carbon Capture and Storage Project)已经开始建设,这是亚洲第一个碳捕集封存商业项目。该项目定于2018年投入运营,每年将从中国煤炭中心陕西省的一家煤制天然气工厂捕集41万吨二氧化碳。

面对煤炭价格的不断下滑,中国政府一直在力推煤制天然气工厂,这种工厂所用的煤转化工艺是出了名的污染严重且极其耗水,而该项目可减少这种工艺造成的碳排放。捕集到的二氧化碳将用卡车运送到140公里外的乔家洼油田,每次运送20吨。这令延长项目成为全球首个“一条龙”CCS项目。

澳大利亚非营利组织、全球碳捕集封存研究院的数据显示,中国还有7个CCS项目在筹备中,它们每年总共可以封存900万吨二氧化碳。这8个项目中,有4个用于煤制天然气工厂。

不过,中国之所以认为CCS有吸引力,是因为它带来了商业上的一线希望,捕集到的数百万吨二氧化碳可被泵入地下以提取石油。支持者宣称,从减排和商业两个角度来看,这种碳封存的提高石油采收率(EOR)方法是一种双赢。

随着成熟的陆上油田日渐枯竭,中国越来越依赖石油进口。

BMI Research的油气分析师Peter Lee表示,过去两年出口下降以及页岩油或“致密”油开采进展缓慢,促使中国考虑EOR这类方法。他说:“中国企业不得不诉诸昂贵的EOR项目,从正接近产品周期终点的现有资产中榨取出最后剩下的几滴油。”

用捕集到的二氧化碳来提取石油并不新鲜。目前全球17个达到商业规模的CCS工厂中,有14个将其二氧化碳出售给EOR项目。中国自20世纪80年代以来一直在探索EOR技术,但由于CCS的前期成本显著,中国对CCS的采用较为缓慢。

国际非营利环保组织、自然资源保护协会能源与气候变化高级顾问杨富强表示:“理论上说,CCS在技术上是可行的。“但它在工业上还没有投入实践,部分原因是仍需展开研究来证明这可以成为一项经济上可行的技术。在中国,科技部支持了几个示范项目,但由于缺乏足够投资,迄今还没有完成一个项目。”

然而,中国重工业领域——包括水泥业和钢铁业在内——的国有企业已开始考虑向现有工厂增添设备,以便捕集它们90%至95%左右的碳排放。

从中国能源和工业企业捕集到的二氧化碳还可用于其他用途。比如加工出食品级的二氧化碳,用于制造碳酸饮料。中国的近来还在探索将二氧化碳泵入日益干旱的平原的含水层,以获取里面残留的水。

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China looks to capture millions of tonnes of CO2 Coal-to-gas plant’s carbon to be pumped into oilfield in first ‘full chain’ project Read next Nick Butler A utopian misdirection on energy A coal plant in Heilongjiang province © Reuters Share on Twitter (opens new window) Share on Facebook (opens new window) Share on LinkedIn (opens new window) 2 Save YESTERDAY by: Emily Feng in Beijing China is planning to capture millions of tonnes of carbon dioxide generated by its energy and steel plants for use in extracting crude oil from the country’s increasingly barren oilfields. Sample the FT’s top stories for a week You select the topic, we deliver the news. Select topic Enter email addressInvalid email Sign up By signing up you confirm that you have read and agree to the terms and conditions, cookie policy and privacy policy. Construction has begun on the Yanchang Integrated Carbon Capture and Storage Project, Asia’s first commercial carbon capture and storage project. Set to begin operations in 2018, Yanchang will capture 410,000 tonnes of carbon a year from a coal-to-gas plant in Shaanxi province, the country’s coal heartland. The project could mitigate emissions from the notoriously polluting and water-intensive coal-conversion process used by coal-to-gas plants, which the Chinese government has been promoting in the face of slumping coal prices. Captured carbon would be transported by truck 140km to the Qiaojiawa oilfields 20 tonnes at a time, making the Yanchang project the world’s first “full-chain” carbon capture and storage (CCS) project. According to Global CCS Institute, an Australian non-profit group, China has a further seven CCS projects in the pipeline, which would store a total of 9m tonnes of CO2 a year. Four of this total of eight projects are for coal-to-gas plants. However, China finds CCS attractive because it carries a commercial silver lining, where the millions of tonnes of captured carbon can be pumped into the ground to extract oil. Proponents tout this enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method of carbon storage as a win-win, from both an emissions and commercial perspective. As its maturing onshore oilfields dry up, China has become increasingly reliant on oil imports. Dropping exports over the past two years and the slow development of shale or “tight” oil extraction has prompted China to consider methods such as EOR, according to Peter Lee, an oil and gas analyst at BMI Research. “Chinese firms have to resort to expensive EOR programmes to squeeze out the last remaining bits of liquids from existing assets that are approaching the end of their product cycles,” Mr Lee said. Using captured carbon to extract oil is not new. Fourteen of the 17 existing commercial scale CCS plants around the world sell their carbon to enhanced oil recovery projects. China has been exploring EOR techniques since the 1980s but has been relatively slow to adopt CCS because of its significant upfront cost. “In theory, CCS is technically feasible,” says Yang Fuqiang, senior adviser on climate and energy at the Natural Resources Defense Council, an international environmental non-profit organisation. “But it hasn’t been put into practice in industry, in part because research is still needed to show that this can be an economically-viable technology. In China, the Ministry of Science and Technology has supported a couple demonstration projects, but none have been completed yet due to a lack of sufficient investments.” Yet state-owned enterprises in China’s heavy industry sectors, including cement and steel, have begun considering adding equipment to existing plants that would allow them to capture about 90 to 95 per cent of their carbon emissions. Carbon from the country’s energy and industrial plants may be put to other uses as well. Huaneng, one of China’s largest power producers, can process food-grade carbon dioxide from its Beijing power plant for use in fizzy drinks.  The country’s policymakers have also been exploring pumping the gas into aquifers in China’s increasingly arid northern plain to access the remaining water.  Twitter: @emilyzfeng Copyright The Financial Times Limited 2017. All rights reserved. You may share using our article tools. Please don't cut articles from FT.com and redistribute by email or post to the web.


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