【环游月球更安全!NASA和SpaceX开始测试生命支持系统】

【环游月球更安全!NASASpaceX开始测试生命支持系统】据报道NASASpaceX开始测试生命支持系统,保证Elon Musk付费游客环游月球时的生命安全。美国航空航天局已经授予SpaceX公司和波音合同,允许他们建立商业载人任务的国际空间站,龙飞船将会带7名宇航员到国际空间站进行测试,SpaceX计划用龙飞船去完成所有游客的旅游航班,甚至完成火星探测任务。http://www.looooker.com/?p=41917

NASA and SpaceX begin testing the life support systems that will keep Elon Musk's paying tourists alive as they travel round the moon

  • Crew dragon capsule will also be used carry up to seven astronauts to the International Space Station
  • NASA has awarded SpaceX and Boeing contracts for commercial crew missions to ISS
  • SpaceX is also planning to use the capsule for its tourist flight and even a robotic mission to Mars

It is the craft that could see America return to manned spaceflight - and take Elon Musk's mystery tourists around the moon.

NASA has confirmed it has begun working with SpaceX on the life support systems that will keep astronauts alive inside its Crew Dragon capsule during missions for NASA's Commercial Crew Program to and from the International Space Station, as well as SpaceX's other missions.

Known as ECLSS, short for environmental control and life support system and pronounced 'e-cliss,' the system is a complex network of machinery, pipes, tanks and sensors that work together to provide astronauts with air and other essentials.

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'ECLSS Systems and Subsystems present unique challenges to a developer,' said Brian Daniel, Crew Systems lead for the Commercial Crew Program.

'Such systems must assure tight control of parameters that are important to human safety such as temperature, carbon dioxide levels, oxygen levels, and cabin pressure.

'The various functions of the life support system must not only be failure tolerant and robust, but also able to perform their function for the whole gamut of the mission, from countdown to splashdown.'

Although tests are run by the companies building the spacecraft, NASA engineers certify the results to see that they meet requirements for safe and reliable operation in flight.

Both Boeing and SpaceX are building spacecraft, launch systems and operational networks for Commercial Crew Program missions to the International Space Station.

SpaceX built a test version of its Crew Dragon solely for evaluation of the life support system.

The ECLSS Module, as the prototype spacecraft is known, was built as close to the specifications of operational spacecraft as possible, SpaceX said, so knowledge gained during its manufacture and testing could be passed on smoothly to flight versions of the spacecraft.

The complex network also provides air for the spacesuits, maintains cabin pressure and regulates all the conditions inside the spacecraft such as temperature and humidity.

It can also provide fire suppression and scrubs the air of the carbon dioxide that astronauts exhale.

The system relies heavily on computer software to automatically adjust conditions for the crew throughout a mission.

Astronauts will still wear launch-and-entry spacesuits while inside the spacecraft during certain phases of their missions to guard against cabin leaks or other emergencies such as a launch abort.

During an earlier phase of development, engineers were sealed inside the ECLSS Module for four hours while the ECLSS provided them a mix of oxygen and nitrogen.

The conditions were closely related to those the spacecraft and astronauts will experience in flight.

'Unlike relying solely on computer simulation and analysis, the ECLSS Module allows us to test and observe Crew Dragon's life support systems as they autonomously control a real cabin environment,' said Nicolas Lima, a life support systems engineer at SpaceX.

'Extensive testing of the ECLSS module has and will continue to contribute to improvements to Crew Dragon's design and operation, which ultimately leads to greater crew safety.'

Crew Dragons will carry astronauts to the International Space Station on missions for NASA's Commercial Crew Program.

The spacecraft will fly into orbit atop a Falcon 9 rocket lifting off from Launch Complex 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

Separately, Boeing is manufacturing a line of spacecraft called CST-100 Starliners that also will take astronauts to the station for on Commercial Crew missions.

NASA has awarded contracts to both companies for flight tests and operational crew rotation missions to the station.

The ECLSS Module of the Crew Dragon includes a transparent floor panel that will not be duplicated on operational spacecraft.

While the rest of the spacecraft was built as closely as possible to a flightworthy Crew Dragon, the see-through panel was placed solely for the testing module so engineers could watch the heart of the ECLSS system itself run through its work.

The ECLSS systems – along with all the others necessary for a safe spacecraft – will see their ultimate tests in orbit once NASA experts certify the spacecraft, launch vehicle and other systems for flight.

The SpaceX

The capsule measures about 20 feet tall by 12 feet in diameter, and will carry up to 7 astronauts at a time. 

'Dragon made history in 2012 when it became the first commercial spacecraft to deliver cargo to the space station, a feat previously achieved only by governments,' SpaceX said.

'But Dragon was also designed from the beginning to carry people, and today SpaceX is finalizing the necessary refinements to make that a reality.'

'Crew Dragon was designed to be an enjoyable ride,' SapceX said - despite the images showing a rather basic seating plan.

'With four windows, passengers can take in views of Earth, the Moon, and the wider Solar System right from their seats, which are made from the highest-grade carbon fiber and Alcantara cloth.'

The craft will replace the Russian Soyuz craft US astronauts currently have to hitch a ride on.

Within two years Nasa hopes that two private space companies - SpaceX and Boeing - will begin taking astronauts into orbit, reducing its reliance on Russia's Soyuz spacecraft.

Unlike Soyuz, the Crew Dragon will use thrusters to land, instead of splashing down in the ocean.

According to SpaceX, 'This system also enables Dragon v2 to land propulsively on Earth or another planet with the precision of a helicopter, making possible interplanetary trips that would otherwise be constrained by ocean landings.'

The Crew Dragon features an advanced emergency escape system (which was tested earlier this year) to swiftly carry astronauts to safety if something were to go wrong, experiencing about the same G-forces as a ride at Disneyland.

for astronauts aboard, it should be an uneventful trip.

Crew Dragon Crew Dragon has an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) that provides a comfortable and safe environment for crew members.

During their trip, astronauts on board can set the spacecraft's interior temperature to between 65 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

Crew Dragon's displays will provide real-time information on the state of the spacecraft's capabilities, showing everything from Dragon's position in space, to possible destinations, to the environment on board.

They won't be able to control the craft unless there's an emergency - Crew Dragon will be a fully autonomous spacecraft that can also be monitored & controlled by on board astronauts and SpaceX mission control in Hawthorne, CA.

Earlier this year SpaceX successfully launched its new Crew Dragon spacecraft that will one day take astronauts into orbit.

The launch passed without a hitch today at almost exactly 2pm BST (9am EDT), with the capsule's eight thrusters taking it into the air.

The total time from lift off to touchdown was one minute and 39 seconds, with the spacecraft successfully splashing down in the Atlantic Ocean to await being retrieved by a nearby ship. 

Their Crew Dragon vehicle demonstrated how it would detach from a rocket and carry astronauts to safety if there was an emergency on the launch pad, such as a risk of an explosion.

The test today was called a 'pad abort test', and took place from Space Launch Complex 40 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

It involved the manned vehicle launching to safety from a simulated emergency on the launch pad.

The flight lasted just 99 seconds, eight seconds shorter than planned, but still successfully demonstrating how the crew would be carried to safety.

For example, if the rocket carrying the spacecraft was in danger some reason, Dragon would have to separate from the rocket and launch its crew away.

For a spacecraft to be deemed safe for humans to travel in, it must be able to pass this test.

The engines can each produce 15,000 pounds of thrust, and are expected to lift the spacecraft to about 5,000ft (1,500 metres) above the ground.

For this test, the spacecraft parachuted into the Atlantic Ocean about a mile (1.6km) offshore, where recovery teams are now on hand to retrieve it.

On future missions to space, the Crew Dragon will be intended to land on the ground.

It will be capable of taking up to seven astronauts to and from orbit - such as the ISS - and SpaceX also has plans to use it on their proposed missions to Mars.

原文链接:http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4295210/NASA-SpaceX-test-moon-mission-life-support-systems.html

 


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