科学家:依赖电子产品和搜索引擎削弱脑力

科技如何影响记忆力的?

关于卫星定位的研究发现,卫星定位帮助了汽车司机,但同时影响了司机的记忆力。司机对他们在路上看到的记忆得更少了。没有导航的情况下,司机找到原路返回的路显得很吃力。

另一项研究发现,带着数码相机去博物馆参观的 人,他们对于已拍照内容的记忆不如对其他未拍照的内容记得更好。也有研究表明,人们被谷歌搜索触手可及的海量信息所愚弄,人们容易把自己看得比实际的自己更聪明。

数码痴呆症

科技也许会给儿童带来数码痴呆症,这些儿童记忆基本数学运算的能力已大大减弱。从事儿童学习研究、也是两个孩子的母亲的Kristy Goodwin博士说,科技的普遍使用已经导致儿童注意力时间更短、语言技能受损。她在脸谱网的一段视频中表示,“全国的老师都在哀叹,现在的孩子不像过去了,现在他们连自己的时间表都想不起来。儿童把记忆东西的任务都交给了电子产品,他们无法训练自己的记忆能力。”

加拿大滑铁卢大学认知心理学的一名教授,Evan Risko提醒人们,如果你把需要记忆的东西放在电脑上,很有可能你就不会动用认知能量去记忆这个东西。结果就是,没有计算机,你记忆那个信息的能力很可能就减弱了。可以说,这些科技正在影响我们记忆的内容。在一篇与伦敦大学学院神经科学家Sam Gilbert合著的论文中,Risko博士回顾了关于“认知卸载”(利用外界节省脑力)的研究。

Risko 教授和Gilbert博士说,有人认为拍照片的人将记忆相关信息的任务卸载,转而交给照相机。研究表明,在网上找信息的人,搜索信息之后对自己的才智有种自我膨胀感。在被问到完全不相关的话题时,他们也认为自己比别人知道的多。比如,在网上搜了拉链原理的受试者,与没有进行搜索环节的受试者相比,前者认为自己在气候科学上知道的更多。在另一组测试中,对于接受了常识测试的受试者,如果被告知他们稍后可以在网上搜索答案,他们将更有可能怀疑自己的直觉,并且产生疑问。

《认知科学趋势》期刊上有一篇文章,学者们说认知卸载并不是新概念,就像看一幅倒着的画就需要扭扭头去看这么简单。一些情况下,认知卸载是有用的,有了科技我们就可以“突破认知极限”。然而,生活在现代化、高科技的环境下,“不断进行认知卸载”所产生的长期影响还不得而知。

Risko教授说,毫无疑问,认知卸载既给我们带来很大好处,也带来潜在的代价。我们现在开始理解这些影响。比如,科技如何使我们在年老时不依赖电子产品,依赖外部设备的缺点到底是什么?现在有很多关于智能手机是否对认知有损害的讨论。显然我们需要更好地理解,转移到科技产品的认知卸载是怎样的过程,及其对人类短期、长期记忆能力的影响。因为我们在认知上日益与科技紧密相连,第二个问题尤其代表了研究者乃至整个社会的紧迫感和担忧。

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3743301/Why-technology-making-STUPID-Reliance-gadgets-search-engines-reduces-brain-power.html

Why technology is making us STUPID: Reliance on gadgets and search engines reduces our brain power

  • Technology such as sat-navs affect our ability to recall information
  • Museum-goers who take pictures remember fewer objects
  • However, the long-term consequences are still unknown

They take many of the stresses and strains out of modern life.

But smartphones, sat-navs and search engines could be messing with our minds.

Scientists say that research is urgently needed into the long-term consequences of relying on gadgets rather than our brains.

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Studies on sat-nav use have found that while they helped motorists on their journey, they affected memory

Studies on sat-nav use have found that while they helped motorists on their journey, they affected memory

HOW DOES TECHNOLOGY AFFECT MEMORY?

Studies on sat-nav use have found that while they helped motorists on their journey, they affected memory.

The drivers remembered less about what they have seen along the way – and struggled to retrace the route when asked to drive it again without the aid of the sat-nav.

Another study found that museum-goers given digital cameras remembered objects they had photographed less well than other exhibits.

Other research suggests that the vast amounts of information available on Google may fool us into thinking we are smarter than we actually are.

Evan Risko, a professor of cognitive psychology at the University of Waterloo, warned: ‘If you are allowed to store some to-be-remembered information on a computer, chances are you won’t devote cognitive real estate to remembering it.

‘As a result, your ability to remember that information without the computer will likely be reduced.

‘There’s little doubt that these new technologies are affecting what we remember.’

In a paper co-authored by University College London neuroscientist Sam Gilbert, Dr Risko reviewed studies into cognitive offloading – or using the outside world to save on brainpower.

These include studies on sat-nav use, which have found that while they helped motorists on their journey, they affected memory.

The drivers remembered less about what they have seen along the way – and struggled to retrace the route when asked to drive it again without the aid of the sat-nav.

Another study found that museum-goers given digital cameras remembered objects they had photographed less well than other exhibits.

Professor Risko and Dr Gilbert said: ‘It was argued that the act of taking a photograph led individuals to offload the memory for the object onto the camera.’

Other research suggests that the vast amounts of information available on Google may fool us into thinking we are smarter than we actually are.

One study found that people who searched for information on the internet had an over-inflated sense of their own intelligence afterwards.

Asked questions on completely unrelated topics, they maintained they knew more than others.

Museum-goers given digital cameras remembered objects they had photographed less well than other exhibits

Museum-goers given digital cameras remembered objects they had photographed less well than other exhibits

'DIGITAL DEMENTIA'

Technology could be causing 'digital dementia' in children who are becoming less able to memorise basic maths.

Dr Kristy Goodwin, a child learning researcher and Sydney mother-of-two, said our pervasive use of technology is causing children to have shorter attention spans and impaired language skills.

'Teachers throughout the country are lamenting the fact that kids today can't recall their times tables like they used to,' she said in a recent Facebook video.

'Children are simply offloading so many things to their devices that they're not developing their memory muscle.'

For instance, volunteers who scoured the internet for information on how a zip works then maintained they were more knowledgeable on climate science than people who hadn’t done a computerised search.

In another experiment, volunteers sitting general knowledge tests were more likely to doubt their instincts and pass on a question, if they were told they would be able to look up the answers online later on.

Writing in the journal Trends in Cognitive Sciences, the academics said cognitive offloading is not new.

Something as simple as twisting the head to view an upside down picture or writing dates in a diary takes strain away from the brain.

In some cases, it is helpful, with technology allowing us to ‘subvert our cognitive limits’.

However, the long-term consequence of living in a modern, hi-tech environment in which we ‘constantly offload our cognition’ are unknown.

Professor Risko said: ‘Cognitive offloading undoubtedly brings huge benefits but also potential costs.

One study found that people who searched for information on the internet had an over-inflated sense of their own intelligence afterwards

One study found that people who searched for information on the internet had an over-inflated sense of their own intelligence afterwards

‘We are just beginning to understand these effects.

‘For instance, how can technology allow us to remain independent as we grow older and what might the downsides be to relying on external devices?

‘There’s a lot of conversation about whether devices like smartphones are ruining us cognitively or not.

‘There is a clear need to better understand how offloading demands onto various technologies, such as computers, the internet, GPS, impact on our abilities both in the short and long-term.

‘The latter represents a particularly pressing concern both for researchers and for society in general as our lives come to be more cognitively entangled with these technologies.’

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3743301/Why-technology-making-STUPID-Reliance-gadgets-search-engines-reduces-brain-power.html#ixzz4HZs044ES
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