#研究分享#【为什么科技让我们变得愚蠢?或许都是互联网的错】

#研究分享#【为什么科技让我们变得愚蠢?或许都是互联网的错】科学家们呼吁,必须研究长期依赖电子设备会对大脑产生怎样的影响。对计算机和智能设备的依赖,已经严重影响了人们的记忆能力,很多研究都显示,对于Google等工具的信任,已经让我们不再相信我们的智慧水平。滑铁卢大学的两项实验也显示,计算机和互联网对人们的记忆力产生了较大的负面影响,对认识能力有所提升,但仍然缺少长期研究以证实相关关系。http://www.looooker.com/?p=32877

Why technology is making us STUPID: Reliance on gadgets and search engines reduces our brain power

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They take many of the stresses and strains out of modern life.

But smartphones, sat-navs and search engines could be messing with our minds.

Scientists say that research is urgently needed into the long-term consequences of relying on gadgets rather than our brains.

Evan Risko, a professor of cognitive psychology at the University of Waterloo, warned: ‘If you are allowed to store some to-be-remembered information on a computer, chances are you won’t devote cognitive real estate to remembering it.

‘As a result, your ability to remember that information without the computer will likely be reduced.

‘There’s little doubt that these new technologies are affecting what we remember.’

In a paper co-authored by University College London neuroscientist Sam Gilbert, Dr Risko reviewed studies into cognitive offloading – or using the outside world to save on brainpower.

These include studies on sat-nav use, which have found that while they helped motorists on their journey, they affected memory.

The drivers remembered less about what they have seen along the way – and struggled to retrace the route when asked to drive it again without the aid of the sat-nav.

Another study found that museum-goers given digital cameras remembered objects they had photographed less well than other exhibits.

Professor Risko and Dr Gilbert said: ‘It was argued that the act of taking a photograph led individuals to offload the memory for the object onto the camera.’

Other research suggests that the vast amounts of information available on Google may fool us into thinking we are smarter than we actually are.

One study found that people who searched for information on the internet had an over-inflated sense of their own intelligence afterwards.

Asked questions on completely unrelated topics, they maintained they knew more than others.

For instance, volunteers who scoured the internet for information on how a zip works then maintained they were more knowledgeable on climate science than people who hadn’t done a computerised search.

In another experiment, volunteers sitting general knowledge tests were more likely to doubt their instincts and pass on a question, if they were told they would be able to look up the answers online later on.

Writing in the journal Trends in Cognitive Sciences, the academics said cognitive offloading is not new.

Something as simple as twisting the head to view an upside down picture or writing dates in a diary takes strain away from the brain.

In some cases, it is helpful, with technology allowing us to ‘subvert our cognitive limits’.

However, the long-term consequence of living in a modern, hi-tech environment in which we ‘constantly offload our cognition’ are unknown.

Professor Risko said: ‘Cognitive offloading undoubtedly brings huge benefits but also potential costs.

‘We are just beginning to understand these effects.

‘For instance, how can technology allow us to remain independent as we grow older and what might the downsides be to relying on external devices?

‘There’s a lot of conversation about whether devices like smartphones are ruining us cognitively or not.

‘There is a clear need to better understand how offloading demands onto various technologies, such as computers, the internet, GPS, impact on our abilities both in the short and long-term.

‘The latter represents a particularly pressing concern both for researchers and for society in general as our lives come to be more cognitively entangled with these technologies.’

链接:http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3743301/Why-technology-making-STUPID-Reliance-gadgets-search-engines-reduces-brain-power.html

作者:FIONA MACRAE

来源:dailymail


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