【人的声音和指纹是独一无二的吗】

【人的声音和指纹是独一无二的吗】英内政部首家司法监管机构的专家表明凭借声音和指纹去推翻证据和维护系统安全可能并不可靠。专家表示在没有对每一个人都做测试的情况下,不应该假设每个人的声音和指纹都是唯一的,也不能凭这些特征去推翻证据和维护安全。然而指纹检测在大部分的案件和系统安全方面可靠性还是很大。

Is every human voice and fingerprint really unique? Experts now suggest these features may not be reliable as overriding court evidence or for security systems

  • It should not be assumed that our voices and fingerprints are unique
  • Experts would need to examine every human who ever lived to know this
  • These features should not be used as overriding evidence or for security
  • However they can be relied on as part of a wider case or system checks 

Barclays, the UK bank, is to replace the password system on its phone banking service with personal voice recognition.

'Unlike a password, each person's voice is as unique as a fingerprint,' said Steven Cooper, Barclays' head of personal banking.

Yet the reality is we have no idea whether either fingerprints or voices are unique at all.

1

I don't mean to say that it is impossible that each of us has a physical feature that is unique.

The problem is that we have no way of knowing whether any of us has such a feature – far less that we all do.

Short of testing all of the 7.4 billion human beings alive today, which is a practical impossibility, we must rely on sampling of some sort.

Testing samples of human populations has allowed us any number of vital medical advances.

It is great for giving us information about the frequency of particular phenomena within a specified population – blood types, for example.

Yet sampling cannot establish uniqueness.

Sampling could no more inform us that one individual has a particular set of fingerprints than it could inform us how that person will vote.

And even if you managed to compare a person's fingerprints with every other living human being, it wouldn't establish their uniqueness.

What of everyone who is dead?

What of all those who are yet to be born?

Neither can you get around this problem with abstract reasoning.

If an X will cause a Y then logically whenever there is an X, there will be a Y – or in this case, my fingerprints are caused by a set of factors peculiar to me; therefore everyone has a set of fingerprints caused by their own set of factors.

That's logical, yet it does not follow that whenever there is a Y there will be an X – or that a set of fingerprints can only be produced by the one set of unique factors.

2

This is because the same effect might have had different causes on different occasions.

The widespread and strongly held belief in the uniqueness of human voices and other physical features characterises and exacerbates a chronic general problem: people misunderstand the nature and significance of quantitative scientific evidence.

原文链接:http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3736338/Is-human-voice-fingerprint-really-unique-Experts-suggest-features-not-reliable-overriding-court-evidence-security-systems.html


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