Facebook 盈利的两难困境:构建受众、 商业模式和社会化媒体的荒诞性

Facebook拥有很高的点击率,但是很难大幅度提高收入。

Facebook沿用一个已经成为经典的商业模式:通过社区价值、确保控制社会活动的意义和传播,来提高网站的社会价值。同时,不强调或不允许广告。花风险投资的钱保持免费服务,目标是提高规模(吸引大量的人)。然后使用大量的用户数来吸引广告、获取收入。

Facebook的问题在于,商家利用它的免费服务进行“挣钱的”和“拥有的”广告活动。同时,它们也创造出关于Facebook使用者(或广义的社交媒体使用者)特征的叙述,削弱Facebook显示广告的商业模式,这种模式是数字平台较普遍的形式,且并不“社交的”。这就导致了比起其他数字平台,在Facebook上较低的投放广告支出。同时导致了在公司一方大量提高市场营销人员和投资人员的“价值”。

特别是在Facebook公开募股之后,这个结果是一个双刃策略:1,创造和支持社交媒体上非正统的使用者,鼓励市场营销人员通过社交媒体对他们做广告;2,扩大Facebbok内监视使用者的活动,这样数据挖掘就成为Facebook主要商业活动的社会组成部分。

一个主要的尴尬处境是,Facebook越是促进它在市场营销人员和投资者的价值,个体和组织就越少可能控制商业社会活动的意义和传播——或是无法控制它们在日常生活中建构个体的意义。

Facebook’s “Monetization” Dilemma: The Ironies in Constructing Audiences, Business Models and Social Media

Joseph Turow
ROBERT LEWIS SHAYON PROFESSOR OF COMMUNICATION, 
ASSOCIATE DEAN FOR GRADUATE STUDIES
jturow@asc.upenn.edu

Research on digital cultural industries, especially at  the intersection of the internet, marketing, and society. Studies on database  marketing, media and privacy, digital out-of-home media, the process of  innovation in the mass media, and the relationship between media and the  medical system.

Joseph Turow is Robert Lewis Shayon Professor of Communication at the University of Pennsylvania's Annenberg School for Communication.

Professor Turow is an elected Fellow of the International Communication Association and was presented with a Distinguished Scholar Award by the National Communication Association.  A 2005 New York Times Magazine article referred to Professor Turow as “probably the reigning academic expert on media fragmentation.” 

He has authored nine books, edited five books, and written more than 100 articles on mass media industries. His newest book, from Yale University Press, is The Daily You: How the New Advertising Industry is Defining Your Identity and Your Worth. In 2010 the University of Michigan Press published Playing Doctor: Television, Storytelling and Medical Power, which is a history of prime time TV and the sociopolitics of medicine.  Routledge recently published the fourth edition of his text Media Today: An Introduction to Mass Communication.  Other books reflecting current interests are Niche Envy: Marketing Discrimination in the Digital Age (MIT Press, 2006). Breaking Up America: Advertisers and the New Media World (University of Chicago Press, 1997; paperback, 1999; Chinese edition 2004); and The Hyperlinked Society: Questioning Connections in the Digital Age (edited with Lokman Tsui, University of Michigan Press, 2008).  

Professor Turow’s continuing national surveys of the American public on issues relating to marketing, new media, and society have received a great deal of attention in the popular press as well as in the research community.  He has written about media and advertising for the popular press, including American Demographics magazine, The Washington Post, Boston Globe and The Los Angeles Times.  His research has received financial support from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Kaiser Family Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Federal Communications Commission and the National Endowment for the Humanities, among others.

Professor Turow was awarded a Lady Astor Lectureship by Oxford University. He has received a number of conference paper and book awards, has lectured widely and been invited to give the Pockrass Distinguished lecture at Penn State University and to be a Chancellor's Distinguished Lecturer at LSU.  He has served as the elected chair of the Mass Communication Division of the International Communication Association.  Professor Turow currently serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Poetics, and New Media & Society. 

 

Abstract
This paper takes a social constructionist approach to understanding the difficulties Facebook has encountered in its attempt to substantially increase the revenues per user on its highly visited site. Based on an extensive analysis of the trade press along with interviews of industry figures, the paper traces the way Facebook’s executives presented themselves to marketers from the site’s inception through today. Facebook followed what has become a standard business model: play up the social value of the site by attaching it to values of community and assurances about control over the meaning and reach of social activities. At the same time, de‐emphasize or disallow advertising. The aim is to build up scale (i.e. draw in large numbers of people) while spending venture‐capital money to keep the service free. Then use the resulting large population to open the spigot of ads and bring in loads of revenue. 

35

The problem for Facebook has been that marketers have focused on taking advantage of its free services to implement “earned” and “owned” advertising activities. At the same time, though, they have created narratives about the nature of Facebook’s audience—and social media audiences in general—that undermine the Facebook’s display‐advertising business model relative to digital platforms that are not primarily “social.” That has led to a lower per‐capital expenditure of money for ads on Facebook compared to other digital spaces notably search. It has also led to furious activities on the part of the firm to improve its “worth” with marketers and investors. Particularly after Facebook’s initial public offering, the result has been a two‐prong strategy: (1) create and support alternative constructions of audiences in social media that encourage marketers to advertising to them via social media, and (2) expand audience surveillance activities within Facebook and beyond it so that data mining with a social component becomes Facebook’s primary business activity. 

The paper traces the development of these activities in the context of Facebook’s construction of itself in relation to them. One central irony is that the more Facebook has taken steps to improve its worth with marketers and investors, the less control individuals and groups have over the meaning and reach of their social activities—or over their implications for the constructions of individuals in everyday life.

本帖最后由 饼干 于 2012-11-2 16:48 编辑


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