时间管理对工作是好事,但对闲暇时间就不合适

生活中,我们需要兼顾工作、学习、生活、家务,任务多而繁琐。待办事项清单有助我们保持头脑清醒,专注于任务本身。然而,一项新研究表明,规划生活也是有限度的——我们不应该为休闲活动和休息时间进行严格的时间规划,否则便会夺走原本的乐趣、轻松、愉悦。
为探究规划休闲活动这一行为对随后的活动体验的影响,华盛顿大学的研究人员Selin Malkoc和Gabriela Tonietto研究了25个实验,并采用其中13个实验的数据写成论文。举例而言,在其中一个实验里,研究人员告诉参与者,他们可以在学习过程中进行短暂休息,并享用免费点心。其中一组学生可以自行选择吃糕点的休息时间,而另一组则必须在某个指定时间出现。不出所料,前者更加享受自己的休息时间。
作者表示,只要休闲时间的规划过于严格,便会产生此现象——它会使原本有趣的事情变得更像工作,降低我们的享受程度。
影响休闲乐趣的并不止过分严格的时间规划。2014年,肯特州立大学的一项研究发现,智能手机的普及损害了休闲时间的质量。每天长时间使用智能手机(作为一种休闲活动)的参与者表示,他们在这段休闲时间内的满意度更低、压力更大。
休闲时间的质量非常重要,因为它会对健康造成影响。一项2013年的研究发现,那些无法在工作中支配休息时间的人在下班时也难以从工作模式中切换出来,进而损害他们在私人时间里放松、充电的能力。
研究人员表示,为了使休闲时间的乐趣最大化,我们确实应该在忙碌的日程表中增添休息时间,但要尽可能随意一些。这样一来,我们既不会错过乐趣,也不会过分损害自己对休闲活动的享受程度。
粗略地安排休闲活动的时间不会使人感到程式化,也不会使休闲活动变得像工作一样,因此便不会降低乐趣。这是一种平衡的行为,它归根结底是要在规划休闲活动时知道自己将获得什么、失去什么。

http://www.sciencealert.com/here-s-why-you-shouldn-t-schedule-fun-according-to-science

Here's why you shouldn't schedule 'fun', according to science

Some things shouldn't be calendarised.

Trying to keep on top of chores like work tasks, study, household jobs, and looking after the family can be difficult, but it's much easier if you write all your to-dos down somewhere. Whether you put reminders on your phone, use a calendar app, or just stick to a time-honoured pen-and-paper checklist, writing down the things you need to do helps clear your head so you can focus on the tasks themselves.

But, according to a new study, there's a limit to how much of our lives we should be calendarising in our schedules and to-do lists. Specifically, researchers at Washington University in St. Louis say we shouldn't bring a strict timetabling approach to leisure activities and general downtime, or we run the risk of draining the joy out of things that should otherwise be simply fun and relaxing.

In a new study to be published in the Journal of Marketing Research, the team describes the results of 13 different experiments that looked into how the simple act of scheduling leisure activities affects the way these events are subsequently experienced.

For example, in one experiment, the researchers gave student participants the opportunity to take a study break with free refreshments for a short time. One group of participants could elect to turn up at the study break whenever they wanted to indulge in the snacks, while another group was told they had to show up at a particular, designated time.

Unsurprisingly, surveys on how much the students enjoyed their study breaks showed that those who weren't locked in to a chosen slot enjoyed the downtime more – and, according to the authors, the same principle applies whenever we try to block out windows for leisure too tightly.

Researchers Selin Malkoc and Gabriela Tonietto examined the fun-killing phenomenon across about 25 different experiments, with 13 of the studies making up the data for their paper.

"Looking at a variety of different leisure activities, we consistently find that scheduling can make these otherwise fun tasks feel more like work and decrease how much we enjoy them," said Tonietto.

Malkoc drew inspiration for the study from an overseas holiday where she'd taken the time to schedule all the personal activities she wanted to do on the trip, including things like catching up with friends and family. While the strategy might have ensured a well-organised holiday timetable, the attention to detail had an unwelcome side effect.

"I soon started to feel reluctant and unenthusiastic at the prospect of the long-awaited reunions that I had scheduled," said Malkoc. "I began to think of each scheduled activity as more like an obligation, even a chore, rather than an enjoyable outing."

Over-organising our downtime isn't the only way scientists say we're impacting on how much fun we could be having. A study by Kent State University in 2014found that the prevalence of smartphones in our lives eats into the quality of leisure time. Participants in that study who engaged in high daily smartphone use – as a means of leisure – reported that their time-filling was less satisfying and more stressful.

Research looking at the quality of our leisure hours is important, because the time we spend away from work can have an impact on our health. A 2013 studyfound that workers who were unable to manage professional interruptions during work hours found it hard to 'switch off' once the work day was over, taking a toll on their ability to relax and recharge during personal time.

According to the Washington University in St. Louis researchers, to maximise the fun of leisure time, the best approach for fitting downtime into an otherwise busy schedule might be timetabling your leisure – but doing it in as loose a manner as possible. This helps us to actually increase our chances of not missing out on the fun or relaxation, while not curbing our enjoyment of the activity too much.

"Roughly scheduling a leisure activity does not feel as structured, does not lead leisure to feel more work-like and thus does not reduce enjoyment," said Malkoc. "So it really is a balancing act," added Tonietto, "and it comes down to knowing what you will gain and lose when you schedule fun activities."


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