未来的界面:对话用户界面

文章导读:【未来的界面:对话用户界面】被普遍接受的图形用户界面GUI风采已步入当年,正在渐渐走向衰落。一种新型用户界面即对话用户界面正在日渐兴起,比GUI更加复杂,使用起来更加方便。使用GUI时,为了预定一架航班,我们需要面对一大堆乱七八糟的按钮,广告,下拉式工具栏,文本框等,并点击18次,转换10个屏幕才能完成。同时GUI的界面变得越来越小,越来越窄,甚至都看不见了。
1、在CUI界面下,我们只需要跟我们的设备聊天就可以了。2、而这种界面将应用在从个人电脑、平板电脑、手机到汽车、恒温器、家庭装置甚至表和眼镜。3、CUI不仅仅是语音识别和合成语言,更是一个智能界面。综合了来自背景识别(谁在什么时候,哪里说了什么)、感知性聆听(你说话时候自动启动)和人工智能推理等技术。苹果的Siri,三星的S-Voice和Nuance的Dragon Mobile Assistant只是第一代,展示了可能性和未来发展趋势。4、随着语言和推理框架与机器学习和大数据,CUI将能够理解人们的意图——语言背后的人们的需求及其周围环境。5、CUI还能“理解”没有图像的虚拟物品或未来的事件。

Forget the GUI: It’s Time for a Conversational User Interface

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It wasn’t just cost and Moore’s law. The graphical user interface — now known as the GUI (“gooey”) — is what really made computing widespread, personal and ubiquitous. Its friendly icons and point-and-clickability made computers approachable, enabling ordinary people to do extraordinary things on devices previously only available to military and high-powered experts.






But the GUI, though it’s served us well for a long time, is beginning to fray around the edges. We’re now grappling with an unintended side effect of ubiquitous computing: a surge in complexity that overwhelms the graphical-only interface. It can take as many as 18 clicks on 10 different screens to make one simple airline reservation while we’re faced with an unwieldy array of buttons, ads, drop-downs, text boxes, hierarchical menus and more.


What makes the problem worse is that we’re forcing the GUI into a mobile-interface world even as the information and tasks available to us continue to increase. Whether it’s because of available real estate or the desire for invisible design, interface screens are increasingly smaller, narrower or simply nonexistent.


What we need now is to be able to simply talk with our devices. That’s why I believe it’s finally time for the conversational user interface, or “CUI.”


This is the interface of the future, made even more necessary as computing propagates beyond laptops, tablets and smartphones to cars, thermostats, home appliances and now even watches … and glasses.






The CUI is more than just speech recognition and synthesized speech; it’s an intelligent interface.


It’s “intelligent” because it combines these voice technologies with natural-language understanding of the intention behind those spoken words, not just recognizing the words as a text transcription. The rest of the intelligence comes from contextual awareness (who said what, when and where), perceptive listening (automatically waking up when you speak) and artificial intelligence reasoning.


Instead of pulling up an app like OpenTable, searching for restaurants, tapping to select time, and typing in party size, we can say, “Book me a table for three at 6 tonight at Luigi’s.”


This type of “conversational assistant” capability is already reaching mainstream consumers due to mobile device features and applications like Apple’s Siri, Samsung’s S-Voice and Nuance’s Dragon Mobile Assistant.


But this is just the first generation: It showcases what’s possible and only hints at what’s to come. Because as language and reasoning frameworks combine with machine learning and big data, conversational interfaces will understand our intent. They will better understand our wants and needs as they learn more about us and our surroundings.


To “book a table at Luigi’s for me, John and Bill, about an hour after my last meeting,” the next-generation CUI will know from our calendars when our last meeting ends, calculate that we need a reservation for three, and even send invitations to John and Bill based on our contacts list.


Why should we have to talk machine-speak?
Why should we have to talk machine-speak, issuing direct commands like, “Change to channel 11″ with unnatural phrasing constraints? Why can’t we just naturally say, “Can I see that movie with the actress who tripped at the Oscars?”


Here’s how: The CUI will be able to understand and break down this expressed interest into the following sequence: “Who tripped at the Oscars?” –> “Jennifer Lawrence movies?” –> “Silver Lining Playbook times/channel” … to actually “Change to channel 11.”


And as these conversational interface systems become increasingly intelligent and attuned to our preferences, interactions will become even more human over time. Conversations will become seamless. People and machine systems will be able to have meaningful exchanges, working together to satisfy a goal (“That movie isn’t on now. Should I put on the LeBron James game instead?”). Ultimately, people will get direct access to the content they want and immediate responses from their devices.


The CUI has another huge advantage over a GUI: We can talk about hypothetical objects or future events that have no graphical representation.
But the CUI has another huge advantage over a GUI: It can allow people to talk about hypothetical objects or future events that have no graphical representation.


We might say, “Move $500 to my savings account when my paycheck comes in” or, “Let me know when I’m near a café — but not a major chain.” A CUI is much more flexible, able to monitor for abstract events such as an upcoming payday or a distant GPS location.


When the creators of Star Trek imagined the conversational interface of the 24th century, Captain Picard had to tell the replicator, “Tea. Earl Grey. Hot” — his expression was constrained by the awkward dialect of a 20th-century keyword search engine.


Here, in the 21st century, we will be able to conversationally say, “How ’bout some tea?” … and actually get that Earl Grey tea, hot. That’s because a CUI will know who we are and understand what we mean.




Many of these capabilities are already appearing as part of our devices today. Voice recognition accuracy has improved dramatically and language and reasoning programs have reached a useful level of sophistication. We still need better models of cooperation and collaboration, but those are also coming along. Putting it all together, we’ll soon have intent-driven, fully conversational interfaces that will be adaptable to just about anyone.


So ordering tea this way isn’t a distant, sci-fi scenario. It isn’t a far-off vision. It’s very real, and it’s almost here now.


The replicator, on the other hand, may take more work.

文章作者:RON APLAN
文章来源:http://www.wired.com/opinion/2013/03/conversational-user-interface/


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