#研究分享#【为什么人们喜欢给Facebook照片加标签?】

#研究分享#【为什么人们喜欢给Facebook照片加标签?】随着数字技术发展,人们网络行为变得越来越复杂。本文基于使用与满足理论视角,通过对780名喜欢在Facebook给照片加标签“圈人”的用户进行问卷调查,将这一动机分为9种维度的满足:喜欢评论、同伴压力、获得欢迎、自我愉悦、社会化分享、便利等。
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Why do we tag photographs on Facebook? Proposing a new gratifications scale

 

Abstract

Using a multi-stage investigation, this study developed and validated a 35-item instrument for measuring gratifications of photo-tagging on Facebook. The questions were developed based on open-ended responses of 141 people who use photo-tags on Facebook. From their answers, 58 items were extracted and then tested on 780 people. This resulted in a 35-item scale that was re-examined with 313 adolescents and 186 adult photo-taggers. The 35-item instrument offers nine gratifications: likes and comments, social influence, peer pressure, gains popularity, entertainment, feels good, social sharing, affection, and convenience. The factorial structure and instrument validity and reliability were high and fairly stable over time. The findings are discussed in relation to the uses and gratifications theory, and the practical implications of this new instrument are explored.

Keywords

Adolescents, Facebook, photo-tagging, social media, uses and gratifications theory

Corresponding author:

Amandeep Dhir, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, School of Science, Aalto University, Konemiehentie 2 Espoo 02150, Finland.
Email: amandeep.dhir@aalto.fi; amandeep.dhir@helsinki.fi

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2 new media & society Introduction

Facebook is the most popular social networking site (SNS) with over 1.39 billion monthly active users (Facebook Newsroom, 2015; Lenhart, 2015). Photo-tagging—when a Facebook user adds a friend’s name to a picture shared on the platform—is an extremely popular feature on Facebook. More than two billion pictures are shared daily on the social medium (Facebook Newsroom, 2015), and friends photo-tag more than 95% of Facebook users in these photographs (Goldman, 2010). Tagging a photograph makes the photo show up on the wall of the Facebook user who is tagged, so tagging a photo may expand how many people see the image. As a result, it provides direct communication between Facebook users (Burke et al., 2011).

However, almost no research has attempted to explain why people photo-tag. This study aimed to answer that question by understanding what needs people gratify by photo-tagging on Facebook. To address this question, we drew on the uses and grati- fications (U&G) theory, which for decades has provided a theoretical framework for examining the motivations behind media use (Rubin, 2009; Ryan et al., 2014). U&G is useful for this study because it depends on the premise that people make decisions about what media—and what features in media—they use to meet their needs (Katz et al., 1973; Rubin, 2009). This process of selecting media that meet one’s needs has become more deliberate in today’s online environment, where an explosion of choices requires that people be selective or risk feeling overwhelmed (Holton and Chyi, 2012). As a result, U&G theory can help identify specific reasons behind media use to help explain the popularity of a particular medium (Katz et al., 1973). In U&G, a gratification explains how a medium, or a specific function of a medium, fills a need or want in people such as for information, emotional connection, or status (Katz et al., 1973).

Understanding why people photo-tag on Facebook is important because it gets to the heart of what it means to be social online. Social media, such as Facebook, allow people to observe others, be seen themselves (Pempek et al., 2009), and express their identities (Lee, 2012.). People can form informal connections and maintain offline relationships through social media (Chen, 2011; Raacke and Bonds-Raacke, 2008). Photo-tagging is part of how Facebook allows users to present, show, form, and main- tain online identities and relationships (Eftekhar et al., 2014). As a result, understand- ing gratifications of photo-tagging provides a glimpse into why people use this feature on this platform.

Theoretically, examining gratifications for photo-tagging on Facebook is impor- tant because it expands the theory from merely considering gratifications of a particu- lar medium—such as Facebook—to examining gratifications of a specific feature of that medium—such as photo-tagging. Sundar and Limperos (2013) describe this type of inquiry as examining the “nuanced gratifications of newer media” (p. 1). This approach is particularly vital in newer media that have multiple technological fea- tures, all of which may gratify needs in different ways. Understanding the gratifica- tions of each feature provides a fuller picture of how people use media to gratify their needs, and updates U&G theory so that it is more applicable to today’s computer- mediated world.

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Dhir et al. 3 Literature review

Uses and gratifications

This theory is suitable for studying photo-tagging because it asks what people do with media, not what media does to people (Rubin, 2009). Palmgreen and Rayburn (1979) argued that users’ psychological needs are often emotional and cognitive in nature, but gratifications sought from media are always goal-oriented and utility-driven. On this note, Leung (2014) recommends that utility-driven media use can be used to determine the motivations behind media use. Therefore, in this study, U&G helped explain what utility-driven, goal-directed gratifications people meet through photo-tagging on Facebook. As such, this study examined process gratifications (Rubin, 2009), defined as gratifications gained from the experience of using media. We updated this concept by applying U&G to the process of using a particular feature of new media, photo-tagging.

This study sought to provide specific gratifications derived from photo-tagging. This approach attempted to counter a criticism of prior U&G research that the theory has been used in such a general way that it offered weak predictive capabilities (Ruggiero, 2000). In addition, this study sought to provide gratifications specific to this medium, rather than merely mirror gratifications identified in early forms of media (Song et al., 2004; Sundar and Limperos, 2013). As Song et al. (2004) recommend, this study departed from prior approaches and utilized post-hoc exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for extracting new gratifications.

标题:Why do we tag photographs on Facebook? Proposing a new gratifications scale

来源:new media & society

作者:Amandeep Dhir、Gina M Chen、Sufen Chen

下载:Why do we tag photographs on facebook


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