美国交通部制定无人机监管方案:用户需注册

美国交通部制定无人机监管方案:用户需注册

美国联邦政府官员表示,美国的新政策将对无人机的操作者产生重要影响。在未来使用无人机时,用户需要进行注册。

美国交通部本周一迈出了第一步。该部门宣布成立工作组,制定这样的注册流程。美国交通部官员在周一的新闻发布会上表示,这一注册最快将从今年假日季启动。

美国交通部长安东尼·福克斯(Anthony Foxx)在一份声明中表示,这样做的目的是在无人机操作者之间形成一种负责任的文化。联邦航空管理局局长迈克尔·胡尔塔(Michael Huerta)则表示:“当他们不安全飞行时,他们将会知道,这将带来不良后果。”

不过,美国政府仍有一些关键问题需要确定,包括这一政策的可操作性,以及无人机操作者应当提供哪些个人信息等。

过去多年中,重量低于55磅(约合25千克)的小型无人机由于安全性问题受到了监管部门的密切关注。今年到目前为止,美国飞行员平均每月报告的无人机不安全飞行约为100次。如果无人机过于靠近普通飞机,那么有可能被吸入飞机引擎,或是撞上飞行员座舱的窗户。

关于无人机的注册,美国监管部门的思路是,当用户购买无人机时,他们需要注册。随后,监管部门将可以跟踪到无人机的所有者。福克斯表示,对无人机的注册是 “很好的第一点”,能帮助监管部门知道无人机的操作者是谁,位置在哪。不过他也表示,这样做仍然不够,因为“坏家伙”不会认证及注册自己的无人机。

飞行员表示,他们支持成立这样的工作组,并且希望参与这项工作。美国航空飞行员协会周一表示:“我们期待与这一工作组的讨论。”

马萨诸塞州参议员爱德华·马基(Edward Markey)表示:“我们要求汽车注册,以确保安全并追溯责任。对于无人机,我们也应当采取同样的做法。”实际上,所有普通飞机、直升机和其他大型飞行器目前都需要注册,而未来这一要求注册的范围将扩大至无人机。

美国政府部门还试图要求当前的无人机所有者进行补注册。目前,美国全国范围内有数十万无人机用户,而政府部门正在考虑,如何推动强制注册的流程。福克斯表示,这并不容易,但仍有很多用户愿意这样做。

根据国际直升机协会周一发布的公告,一些业内研究估计,今年假日季美国将售出超过100万个无人机。不过美国交通部表示,因为“安全风险较低”,许多这些无人机不必进行注册。这些无人机包括儿童玩具和其他小型无人机等。

美国交通部表示,此次的工作组将包括“25至30名不同代表,分别来自无人机厂商、有人驾驶航空产业、联邦政府,以及其他利益相关方”。此外,这一任务组将为无人机操作者“探索优化的系统”。

http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-34578259

'Urgent' call for US drone register

Drone with aeroplane in background

A national register of drones and their owners is urgently needed, the US transport secretary has said.

Anthony Foxx said a taskforce had been set up to examine creating a record of drones and their users.

The move comes after several reported incidents of drones hindering emergency services' efforts in fighting fires and other dangers.

The problem is seen as particularly pressing as the number of drones given as Christmas presents this year is expected to soar.

The task force will issue a report on how the database will be implemented late next month.

Crucially, it will look at what kind of drones should be exempt from the database, such as those bought as toys.

"We feel the level of urgency here is sufficient for us to move as quickly as we possibly can," Mr Foxx said.

He added in a statement: "Registering unmanned aircraft will help build a culture of accountability and responsibility, especially with new users who have no experience operating in the U.S. aviation system. It will help protect public safety in the air and on the ground."

'Stupidity'

The National Press Photographers' Association (NPPA), which has campaigned against the implementation of some drone laws, agreed with a database in principle, but questioned how effective it would be in preventing unsafe drone use.

"The fact is that for the most part, when there are sightings, they don't actually get to recover the drone itself," NPPA lawyer Mickey Osterreicher told BBC News.

"So what would registering the drone accomplish?"

He added that further rules would not prevent bad drone use, drawing comparisons to people who drive cars without a licence or insurance: "You really can't legislate against stupidity."

Helicopter in California wildfireImage copyrightGetty Images
Image captionDrones were said to be hampering the efforts of Californian fire fighters

The plans have the support of several other groups in the aviation industry, including the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI), which will help the task force to come up with recommendations.

The group said: "Because safe operations are essential for all users of the national airspace, AUVSI is also looking forward to continuing its work with the FAA and other supporters of the 'Know Before You Fly' campaign to educate newcomers to UAS technology about where they should and shouldn't fly."

Drone safety has been of prime concern to US authorities as emergency services repeatedly cite examples of drones hampering their work.

California governor Jerry Brown recently shot down a proposed law to make it easier for emergency services to disable drones flying near disaster areas by using electronic jamming.

That bill gained support after fire fighters had to down helicopters that were trying to extinguish devestating wildfires in northern California.

The bill was opposed by several groups representing drone users' interests, including the NPPA.

In a letter to the governor, the NPPA argued that it would make it too difficult for media to legally cover stories by using drones.

After dismissing the proposed law, Mr Brown said he agreed with those who felt it could open a legal minefield for hobbyist drone owners acting within existing laws.

Follow Dave Lee on Twitter @DaveLeeBBC


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