[皮尤研究中心]数字差别

互联网是人类的未来生存方式,数字鸿沟是皮尤研究中心一直关注的热点。上周皮尤发布报告《数字差别》,认为虽然持续上升的互联网和手机使用率在过去十年中见笑了很多技术获取上的鸿沟,但一些群体间的数字差别仍然存在。以下是报告中的关键事实:

  • 美成年人上网率从1995年的10%上升到2011年的78%;
  • 1/5 的美国成年人不用互联网;
  • 不上网的主要原因是他们不认为互联网和他们有什么关系;
  • 残疾人上网比例明显低于正常人(54% vs. 81%);
  • 已触网人群网络行为更加多样;
  • 88%的美成年人有手机;
  • 排名前几位的手机应用包括:信息、拍照、上网、发送照片、电子邮件、下载App、游戏、音乐等
  • 智能手机用户中,年轻人、少数族裔、无大学教育背景和低收入的群体更有可能将手机作为他们的上网主要渠道;

原文题目:Pew Research Center: Digital differences

原文:

When the Pew Internet Project first began writing about the role of the internet in American life in 2000, there were stark differences between those who were using the internet and those who were not.1 Today, differences in internet access still exist among different demographic groups, especially when it comes to access to high-speed broadband at home. Among the main findings about the state of digital access:

  • One in five American adults does not use the internet. Senior citizens, those who prefer to take our interviews in Spanish rather than English, adults with less than a high school education, and those living in households earning less than $30,000 per year are the least likely adults to have internet access.
  • Among adults who do not use the internet, almost half have told us that the main reason they don’t go online is because they don’t think the internet is relevant to them. Most have never used the internet before, and don’t have anyone in their household who does. About one in five say that they do know enough about technology to start using the internet on their own, and only one in ten told us that they were interested in using the internet or email in the future.
  • The 27% of adults living with disability in the U.S. today are significantly less likely than adults without a disability to go online (54% vs. 81%). Furthermore, 2% of adults have a disability or illness that makes it more difficult or impossible for them to use the internet at all.
  • Though overall internet adoption rates have leveled off, adults who are already online are doing more. And even for many of the “core” internet activities we studied, significant differences in use remain, generally related to age, household income, and educational attainment.

The ways in which people connect to the internet are also much more varied today than they were in 2000. As a result, internet access is no longer synonymous with going online with a desktop computer:

  • Currently, 88% of American adults have a cell phone, 57% have a laptop, 19% own an e-book reader, and 19% have a tablet computer; about six in ten adults (63%) go online wirelessly with one of those devices. Gadget ownership is generally correlated with age, education, and household income, although some devices—notably e-book readers and tablets—are as popular or even more popular with adults in their thirties and forties than young adults ages 18-29.
  • The rise of mobile is changing the story. Groups that have traditionally been on the other side of the digital divide in basic internet access are using wireless connections to go online. Among smartphone owners, young adults, minorities, those with no college experience, and those with lower household income levels are more likely than other groups to say that their phone is their main source of internet access.
  • Even beyond smartphones, both African Americans and English-speaking Latinos are as likely as whites to own any sort of mobile phone, and are more likely to use their phones for a wider range of activities.

The primary recent data in this report are from a Pew Internet Project tracking survey. The survey was fielded from July 25-August 26, 2011, and was administered by landline and cell phone, in English and Spanish, to 2,260 adults age 18 and older. The margin of error for the full sample is ±2 percentage points. For more information about this survey and others that contributed to these findings, please see the Methodology section at the end of this report.

原文作者:Kathryn Zickuhr, Research Specialist, Pew Internet
Aaron Smith, Senior Research Specialist, Pew Internet
Read more from Pew Internet & American Life Project
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