#科技头条#【外尔费米子终被发现】

#科技头条#【外尔费米子终被发现】这种新被证实存在的粒子叫做外尔费米子,早在1929年即被作为理论提出。它可以同时充当物质和反物质,能比电子更快速地进行充电,因为它没有质量。而其速度和稳定性,可能被用于新型量子计算,或极大地推进未来技术的发展。

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The Weyl fermion is finally discovered: Massless particle first theorised in 1929 could pave way for next-generation quantum computing

  • The Weyl fermion was first theorised in 1929 by physicist Hermann Weyl
  • Newly discovered particle can act as matter and anti-matter simultaneously
  • It can carry charge more quickly than an electron because it has no mass
  • Its speed and stability can be used for new types of quantum computing

 

The discovery of a massless particle could pave the way to more stable quantum computers many times more powerful than today's gadgets.

The new particle, called the Weyl fermion, can move electrical charge more quickly than an electron because it has no mass.

But that's where it gets weird, because the Weyl fermion can act as matter and anti-matter simultaneously.

 

A detector image (left) signals the existence of Weyl fermions. A schematic (right) shows how Weyl fermions also can behave like monopole and antimonopole particles when inside a crystal

The discovery is significant because it is thought Weyl fermions can carry charge twice as fast as the wonder material graphene.

The Weyl fermion was first theorised in 1929 by mathematician and physicist Hermann Weyl.

Since then, scientists have been eager to find evidence of the elusive particle, as it is a basic building block of matter, even more fundamental than the electron.

But unlike electrons, Weyl fermions are massless and possess a high degree of mobility.

'The physics of the Weyl fermion are so strange, there could be many things that arise from this particle that we're just not capable of imagining now,' said M. Zahid Hasan, a Princeton professor of physics who led the research team.

'It's like they have their own GPS and steer themselves without scattering,' Hasan said.

The most startling find is that Weyl fermions can behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal.

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What's more, Weyl fermions can be used to make massless electrons that move very quickly with no backscattering.

In electronics, backscattering hinders efficiency and generates heat, but Weyl electrons simply move through and around roadblocks, according to the researchers.

'These are very fast electrons that behave like unidirectional light beams and can be used for new types of quantum computing.'

The hunt for the Weyl fermion began in the earliest days of quantum theory when physicists first realized that their equations implied the existence of antimatter counterparts to commonly known particles such as electrons, according to Hasan.

'People figured that although Weyl's theory was not applicable to relativity or neutrinos, it is the most basic form of fermion and had all other kinds of weird and beautiful properties that could be useful,' he said.

'After more than 80 years, we found that this fermion was already there, waiting. It is the most basic building block of all electrons,' he said.

'It is exciting that we could finally make it come out following Weyl's 1929 theoretical recipe.

'Weyl fermions are the basic building blocks; you can combine two Weyl fermions to make an electron,' said Hasan.

The team behind the discovery claim that Weyl fermions offer new ways of encoding quantum information that is more stable as they are less prone to interacting with their environment.

'Professor Hasan's experiments report the observation of both the unusual properties in the bulk of the crystal as well as the exotic surface states that were theoretically predicted,' said Ashvin Vishwanath, a professor of physics at the University of California-Berkeley.

'While it is too early to say what practical implications this discovery might have, it is worth noting that Weyl materials are direct 3D electronic analogs of graphene, which is being seriously studied for potential applications.'

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3172007/Weyl-fermion-finally-discovered-Massless-particle-theorised-1929-pave-way-generation-quantum-computing.html#ixzz3glUxZnXO
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