赛博空间

赛博空间(Cyberspace)是哲学和计算机领域中的一个抽象概念,指在计算机以及计算机网络里的虚拟现实。赛博空间一词是控制论(cybernetics)和空间(space)两个词的组合,是由居住在加拿大的科幻小说作家威廉·吉布森在1982年发表于omni杂志的短篇小说《融化的铬合金(Burning Chrome)》中首次创造出来,并在后来的小说神经漫游者中被普及。
DECLARATION OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF CYBERSPACE
赛柏空间独立宣言
Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather.
工业世界的政府,你们这些肉体和钢铁的巨人,令人厌倦,我来自赛柏空间,思维的新家园。以未来的名义,我要求属于过去的你们,不要干涉我们的自由。我们不欢迎你们,我们聚集的地方,你们不享有主权。
We have no elected government, nor are we likely to have one, so I address you with no greater authority than that with which liberty itself always speaks. I declare the global social space we are building to be naturally independent of the tyrannies you seek to impose on us. You have no moral right to rule us nor do you possess any methods of enforcement we have true reason to fear.
我们没有民选政府,将来也不会有,所以我现在跟你们讲话,运用的不过是自由言说的权威。我宣布,我们建立的全球社会空间,自然地不受你们强加给我们的专制的约束。你们没有任何道德权利统治我们,你们也没有任何强制方法,让我们真的有理由恐惧。
Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed. You have neither solicited nor received ours. We did not invite you. You do not know us, nor do you know our world. Cyberspace does not lie within your borders. Do not think that you can build it, as though it were a public construction project. You cannot. It is an act of nature and it grows itself through our collective actions.
政府的正当权利来自被统治者的同意。你们从来没有要求过我们的同意,你们也没有得到我们的同意。我们没有邀请你来,你们不了解我们,不了解我们的世界。赛柏空间不在你们的疆界之内。不要认为你们可以建造这样一个疆界,好像建造一座公共建筑。你们没有这个能力。这个疆界是一件自然行为,它将从我们的集体行动中生发出来。
You have not engaged in our great and gathering conversation, nor did you create the wealth of our marketplaces. You do not know our culture, our ethics, or the unwritten codes that already provide our society more order than could be obtained by any of your impositions.
你们从来没有参加过我们的大会,你们也没有创造我们的市场财富。对我们的文化,我们的道德,我们的不成文法典,你们一无所知,这些法典已经在维护我们社会的秩序,比你们的任何强制所能达到的要好得多。
You claim there are problems among us that you need to solve. You use this claim as an excuse to invade our precincts. Many of these problems don't exist. Where there are real conflicts, where there are wrongs, we will identify them and address them by our means. We are forming our own Social Contract. This governance will arise according to the conditions of our world, not yours. Our world is different.
你们说我们有问题,你们要解决这些问题。你们用这个借口侵犯我们的领地。你们所宣称的这些问题,许多都不存在。真正冲突出现的时候,不公正出现的时候,我们自己会鉴定它,用自己的方式解决它。我们正在形成我们自己的社会契约。治理将出现,但根据的是我们世界的情况,不是你们的。我们的世界,是不同的。
Cyberspace consists of transactions, relationships, and thought itself, arrayed like a standing wave in the web of our communications. Ours is a world that is both everywhere and nowhere, but it is not where bodies live.
赛柏空间由交易、关系和思想本身构成,它们像一道永恒的波浪,在我们的交流之网上部署着。我们的世界无处不在,又无处可寻,我们的世界不是肉体存在的世界。
We are creating a world that all may enter without privilege or prejudice accorded by race, economic power, military force, or station of birth.
我们正在创造一个新世界,人人都可以进入这个世界,而不必考虑由种族、经济力、武力、出生地而来的特权或偏见。
We are creating a world where anyone, anywhere may express his or her beliefs, no matter how singular, without fear of being coerced into silence or conformity.
我们正在创造一个新世界,人人、处处可以表达他或她的信仰,无论这种信仰是多么古怪,而不再害怕被强制沉默或强制一律。
Your legal concepts of property, expression, identity, movement, and context do not apply to us. They are based on matter, There is no matter here.
你们关于财产、表达、身份、迁徙的法律概念及其关联对我们不适用。这些概念建立在物质的基础上,我们这里没有物质。
Our identities have no bodies, so, unlike you, we cannot obtain order by physical coercion. We believe that from ethics, enlightened self-interest, and the commonweal, our governance will emerge . Our identities may be distributed across many of your jurisdictions. The only law that all our constituent cultures would generally recognize is the Golden Rule. We hope we will be able to build our particular
solutions on that basis. But we cannot accept the solutions you are attempting to impose.
我们的身份不涉及肉体,所以和你们不一样,我们不能通过肉体的强制来获得秩序。我们相信,我们的治道将从伦理、明智的自我利益和公益中产生出来。我们的身份可能分布在你们许许多多的法律管辖中。我们全部的立宪文化能够普遍认可的唯一法律就是这样一个法则:己所不欲,勿施予人。我们希望能在这个基础上确立我们特殊的解决方案。但是我们不能接受你们企图强加给我们的解决方案。
In the United States, you have today created a law, the Telecommunications Reform Act, which repudiates your own Constitution and insults the dreams of Jefferson, Washington, Mill, Madison, DeToqueville, and Brandeis. These dreams must now be born anew in us.
在美国,你们颁布了《通讯改革法案》,这个法律否定了你们自己的宪法,辱没了杰斐逊、华盛顿、密尔、麦迪逊、托克维尔、布兰代斯的梦想。他们的梦想,现在要在我们身上脱胎换骨,焕发生机。
You are terrified of your own children, since they are natives in a world where you will always be immigrants. Because you fear them, you entrust your bureaucracies with the parental responsibilities you are too cowardly to confront yourselves. In our world, all the sentiments and expressions of humanity, from the debasing to the angelic, are parts of a seamless whole, the global conversation of bits. We cannot separate the air that chokes from the air upon which wings beat.
你们被自己的孩子吓坏了,因为在这个世界里,他们是土著,而你们永远是外来着。因为你们害怕他们,你要你们的官僚机构承担一种父母的责任,这种责任,你们自己都胆怯地不能面对。在我们的世界里,所有人的情感和表达,不管是值得谴责的,还是像天使一般美好的,都属于一个无缝的整体——比特的全球交谈。我们不能把窒息鸟儿的空气和鸟的翅膀拍打的空气分开。
In China, Germany, France, Russia, Singapore, Italy and the United States, you are trying to ward off the virus of liberty by erecting guard posts at the frontiers of Cyberspace. These may keep out the contagion for a small time, but they will not work in a world that will soon be blanketed in bit-bearing media.
在中国、德国、法国、俄罗斯、新加坡、意大利和美国,你们试图通过在赛柏空间的边疆设立岗哨,把自由的病毒挡在门外。这些岗哨或许能暂时把传染挡在外面,但在一个即将被比特媒体覆盖的世界中,这一切都将失去作用。
Your increasingly obsolete information industries would perpetuate themselves by proposing laws, in America and elsewhere, that claim to own speech itself throughout the world. These laws would declare ideas to be another industrial product, no more noble than pig iron. In our world, whatever the human mind may create can be reproduced and distributed infinitely at no cost. The global conveyance of thought no longer requires your factories to accomplish.
在美国和其它地方,你们日益落伍的信息工业试图通过提议制定法律使自己永世长存,这些法律声称占有全世界的言论,宣称思想不过是另一种工业产品,不比生铁更高贵。在我们的世界,人类思维所能创造的一切东西,都可以无限制地免费复制和分发。思想的全球传输,不再需要你们的工厂完成。
These increasingly hostile and colonial measures place us in the same position as those previous lovers of freedom and self-determination who had to reject the authorities of distant, uninformed powers. We must declare our virtual selves immune to your sovereignty, even as we continue to consent to your rule over our bodies. We will spread ourselves across the Planet so that no one can arrest our thoughts.
这些越来越不友好的的殖民措施,使我们和早年那些热爱自由和自主的人们处于同样的处境,他们不得不反对那些遥远的、不明就里的权力的支配。而我们也必须宣布,即使我们仍然同意接受你们对我们的肉体的统治,我们的虚拟自我也不受你们主权的辖制。我们将在这颗行星上传播我们的思想,没有人能够逮捕我们的思想。
We will create a civilization of the Mind in Cyberspace. May it be more humane and fair than the world your governments have made before.
我们将在赛柏空间创造一种思维的文明,这种文明将比你们这些政府此前所创造的更为人道和公平。
Davos, Switzerland
February 8, 1996
瑞士达沃斯
1996年2月8日


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