质化研究三大传统

#研究方法#【质化研究三大传统】美国田纳西大学Flint
教授指出,质化研究方法有现象学、扎根理论和人种志三大传统。现象学的理论背景是心理学,旨在探询人们日常生活和体验的意义。扎根理论的理论背景是社会心理学,旨在发现和理解人们社会互动过程中的问题,并以此建构理论。人种志的理论背景是人类学,重在理解人类的文化。

文章题目:Three Traditions of qualitative research methods

文章内容:

 

Explain key differences and similarities acrossphenomenology, grounded theory and ethnography in terms of their theoreticaland disciplinary origins, their objectives, and their methodologicalcomponents.

 

Differences:

 

Phenomenology has its theoreticalbackground in psychology (Polking 1989). The purpose of doing phenomenologicalresearch is to understand the essential meaning of everyday lived experiencesfrom the perspectives of people living them (Thompson, Locander and Pollio1989). In other words, phenomenology is the study of human experience and thestructures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view(Sokolowski 2000).  Becausephenomenologist needs to access participants’ consciousness to reveal the livedmeanings, the in-depth long interview (McCracken, 1988) is the most commonlyused method to conduct phenomenological studies.

Grounded theory has its origin in sociologyand social psychology. The purpose of doing grounded theory is to discover andunderstand the meanings and concepts in the processes of people’ s socialinteractions and build middle level theories (Mello and Flint 2009). The basicassumption of grounded theory is that people are continuous problems solvingactors. The theoretical foundation work for grounded theory is symbolicinteractionism proposed by Blumer (1969). Methodologically, a grounded theorystudy primarily uses interviews, but also uses observations and documentanalysis.

Ethnography has its theoretical backgroundin anthropology. The primary purpose of doing ethnography is to understandcultures of people. Therefore, an ethnographic study pays special attentions tothe social norms, customs, and behaviors within a specific group of people(Belk, Sherry and Wallendorf 1988). Ethnographers rely heavily on observation including both direct andindirect observations (Russell 2002). They also use interviews and documents tocollect data. Sometimes, they even use surveys to gather important information.To some extent, ethnography is a mix-method tradition using both qualitativeand quantitative techniques to collect data.

 

Similarities:

 

Although the three traditions havedifferences regarding their theoretical background, objectives, andmethodological components, they could be all considered as humanistic inquiry(Hirschman 1986) displaying some similarities in philosophy, method, andevaluative criteria. Philosophically, they share some basic assumptions, suchas multiple realities exist, researchers and the phenomenon under study areinteractive, contexts are important, meanings are co-creation betweenresearchers and participants, research inquiry is value-laden and so forth.Therefore, the general purpose of doing qualitative research is to reveal themultiple realities, to describe contexts, to co-create meanings, and tointerpret findings. Methodologically, although different traditions have theirown preferences, the commonly used method across three traditions isinterviews. Three traditions more or less rely on interviews to collect theirdata although the purposes and execution ways may be different (Spradley 1979;McCracken 1988; Holstein and Gubrium 1995; Fetterman 1998). Finally, the threetraditions use the same criterion – trustworthiness (Lincoln and Cuba 1985;Hirschman 1986; Wallendorf and Belk 1989) to evaluate the quality of research.

编者按:美国田纳西大学的Flint教授,是该校质化研究方法的授课老师,也是质化研究方面很有造诣的一位老师。他所讲的这三大传统,以及这三大传统的理论背景、目标和方法论构成,思路非常清晰,对于我们建立方法论上的一些框架性认识,我个人认为是很有用处的。所以这里将陈欢老师对此的介绍分享给大家。谢谢他们二位的分享!

文章来源:田纳西大学市场营销学教授Dr. Daniel J. Flint的授课内容,感谢宾夕法尼亚州立大学助理教授陈欢的撰文介绍!


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