新媒介与政治:从“集体行为”到“连接行为”的逻辑

技术带来的是personalized public engagement,亦即“个人化了的公众参与”,从阿拉伯之春到占领华尔街运动,电子媒介在大规模、长时间的抗议活动中正发挥着越来越重要的作用,政治组织的过程由线下转移到线上。当传播成为了组织结构中的一个显著的部分时,要理解大规模的行动网络就需要我们区分两种发挥作用的逻辑:1. 集体行为(collective action)是与高程度的组织资源和集体身份的形成有关,人们凭借相同或者类似的背景、观点集结起来,这种逻辑较为我们熟知;2. 连接行为(connective action)是基于媒介网络中个人化的内容分享的,这种逻辑对我们来说还较为陌生。对于前一种逻辑,电子媒介并未对其产生重大影响(并且降低了其形成的门槛),而对后者来说则有关键的影响。基于这些区别,本文展现了在当代争议政治中日渐引发关注的三种理想的大规模行动网络类型。

The Logic of Connective Action
W. Lance Bennett & Alexandra Segerberg

a Department of Political Science and Communication, University of Washington, 101 Gowen Hall, Box 353530, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA
b Department of Political Science, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden
Version of record first published: 10 Apr 2012

To cite this article: W. Lance Bennett & Alexandra Segerberg (2012): THE LOGIC OF CONNECTIVE ACTION, Information, Communication & Society, 15:5, 739-768
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2012.670661

Abstract
From the Arab Spring and los indignados in Spain, to Occupy Wall Street (and beyond), large-scale, sustained protests are using digital media in ways that go beyond sending and receiving messages. Some of these action formations contain relatively small roles for formal brick and mortar organizations. Others involve well-established advocacy organizations, in hybrid relations with other organizations, using technologies that enable personalized public engagement. Both stand in contrast to the more familiar organizationally managed and brokered action conventionally associated with social movement and issue advocacy. This article examines the organizational dynamics that emerge when communication becomes a prominent part of organizational structure. It argues that understanding such variations in large-scale action networks requires distinguishing between at least two logics that may be in play: The familiar logic of collective action associated with high levels of organizational resources and the formation of collective identities, and the less familiar logic of connective action based on personalized content sharing across media networks. In the former, introducing digital media do not change the core dynamics of the action. In the case of the latter, they do. Building on these distinctions, the article presents three ideal types of large-scale action networks that are becoming prominent in the contentious politics of the contemporary era.

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