让我们快乐的因素与76年前有何差别

#研究分享#【让我们快乐的因素与76年前有何差别】英国波尔顿大学的研究者于2014年重复了1938年在波尔顿进行一项关于“什么是幸福?”的调查,并对两项调查结果进行比较,发现让人幸福的因素在将近80年的时间内发生了较大变化:1.1938年的调查发现安全、知识和宗教为影响幸福的最重要因素,2014年幽默感和闲暇时光则为最重要的因素,2.宗教因素在76年间发生了重大变化,从第三位跌倒了第十位。3.1938年,20%的人认为“运气”对幸福感很重要,2014年,这个数值翻倍,41%的人认为运气很重要。4.1938年人们的幸福感主要来自日常生活和社区活动,而2014年则来自家庭和朋友的互动。

 

The Changing Nature of Happiness

Revisiting one of the first historical studies in the developing ‘science’ of well-being.

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THE current preoccupation with happiness, manifested, for example, in the Office of National Statistics now adding questions on happiness to their household surveys, is not as recent as many experts would have us believe. Indeed Darrin McMahon provides a scholarly historical overview of the field of happiness in his book, Happiness: A History (2006). McMahon traces the origins of the concept back to Herodotus, Plato, Aristotle and others and on through the centuries to the more recent involvement in the field of happiness of economists and psychologists, rather than philosophers and theologians. Our own interest in the topic was partly stimulated by our discovery of one of the first purportedly scientific studies of happiness, conducted as part of Mass  Observation’s Worktown, in the Lancashire town of Bolton in 1938. We describe the background to the 1938 study and then contrast the findings from this with our own replication of the original Worktown study. We end by making some general observations on the concept of happiness. ‘An ugly place’, said J.B. Priestley of Bolton and contemporary photographs show a smoggy industrial town, its skyline dominated by tall chimneys. Despite the depression of the 1930s, Bolton still had 200 cotton mills, engineering and mining industries and its unemployed rate of 15 per cent was lower than many other declining industrial centres. Public works, such as the construction of Le Mans Crescent, an extension to the town hall and the building of some new housing eased the effect of contracting industries.

So, with beautiful countryside on the  doorstep, it was not all industrial toil and gloom. The expansion of pleasure opportunities in the interwar period benefited those with a little cash to spare: the first Butlin’s holiday camp opened in 1936. Bolton boasted six dance halls, 300 pubs, 47 cinemas and a freestyle wrestling stadium within a five- mile radius of the town centre. From 1933 special ‘Dance Trains’ transported Boltonians for a day trip or evening at Blackpool’s Tower Ballroom to ‘let their hair down’. Mills had staggered closures, enabling the workforce to decamp to Blackpool to enjoy its seaside attractions. Mass Observation had a team based there in 1937. Closer to home, the 200 churches and chapels in Bolton not only provided religious services, but also social activities and events. 

文章来源:History today 12/2014; Volume 64(12):4-5.

文章作者:Sandie McHugh and Jerome Carson

文章链接:http://www.researchgate.net/publication/269699781_The_Changing_Nature_of_Happiness


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