#科技头条#【首次发现增长智力的关键基因?!】

德国Max Planck研究所近日声称发现决定人类智力增长的ARHGAP11B基因,该基因人类区别于其他物种,使人类的大脑在180万年间增长了两倍。据悉科学家已开始尝试用该基因提高小白鼠智商。筒子们,妈妈再也不用担心你的智商啦

While we share 99 per cent of our genes with chimpanzees, our brains are still three times as big.

Scientists believe that during evolution our genome must have changed in order to trigger such a massive brain growth.

Now, for the first time, researchers in Germany have identified a gene that is only present in humans, making our minds far more complex than other species.

Scientists in Dresden have found a single single gene that may be responsible for the large number of neurons found uniquely in the human brain. When this gene was inserted in the brain of a mouse embryo (pictured), it caused the formation of many more neurons (stained red)

Scientists in Dresden have found a single single gene that may be responsible for the large number of neurons found uniquely in the human brain. When this gene was inserted in the brain of a mouse embryo (pictured), it caused the formation of many more neurons (stained red)

Scientists believe the gene arose in humans after our ancient ancestors and those of chimps split from the same evolutionary path more than five million years ago.

Known as ARHGAP11B, the gene contributes to the reproduction of basal brain stem cells, triggering an increase in the number of neurons in the neocortex.

This is a brain region that is central to reasoning, language and sensory perception.

The researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics isolated different subpopulations of human brain stem cells and identified, which genes are active in which cell type.

Scientists believe the gene arose on the humans after our ancient ancestors and those of chimps split from the same evolutionary path more than five million years ago.Known as ARHGAP11B, the gene contributes to the reproduction of basal brain stem cells, triggering an increase in the number of neurons in the neocortex.

Scientists believe the gene arose on the humans after our ancient ancestors and those of chimps split from the same evolutionary path more than five million years ago.Known as ARHGAP11B, the gene contributes to the reproduction of basal brain stem cells, triggering an increase in the number of neurons in the neocortex.

They noticed the gene ARHGAP11B, which is also found in our closest relatives, the Neanderthals and Denisova-Humans, but not in chimpanzees.

HOW OUR BRAINS HAVE GROWN

Around 3.8 million ago, our ancestors Australopithecus afarensis, had a brain that was 30 cubic inches (500 cubic centimeters) in volume.

About 1.8 million years ago, Homo erectus had a brain twice the size of Australopithecus afarensis.

When Neanderthals and Denisovans arrived, the brain had grown to 85 cubic inches (1.4 litres) in volume.

Despite this increase in size, scientists believe human's intelligence may have more to do with how brain cells form that how large the brain grows. 

Tests on mouse embryos revealed that the gene can have a huge impact on brain development.

Embryos injected with the gene grew larger brain regions and some developed the wrinkled surface characteristic of the human brain, allowing more tissue to fit into the skull.

'It is so cool that one tiny gene alone may suffice to affect the phenotype of the stem cells, which contributed the most to the expansion of the neocortex,' study lead author Marta Florio at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics toldLiveScience.

But it is likely this gene is just one of a large number of genetic changes that make human intelligence unique, she added.

Around 3.8 million ago, our ancestors Australopithecus afarensis, had a brain that was less than 30 cubic inches (500 cubic centimeters) in volume.

About 1.8 million years ago, Homo erectus had a brain twice the size of Australopithecus afarensis.

When Neanderthals and Denisovans arrived, the brain had grown to 85 cubic inches (1.4 litres) in volume.

Despite this increase in size, scientists believe human's intelligence may have more to do with how brain cells form that how large the brain grows.

The team now wants the mice to grow into adults while carrying the gene to see if it improves their intelligence. 
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2972875/Big-brain-DNA-humans-Single-gene-intelligent-chimps-identified-time.html


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